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研究生:黃芳利
研究生(外文):HUANG, FANG-LI
論文名稱:台北市國小學童使用校園戶外空間之研究
論文名稱(外文):Study on The Utilization of Open Space for Student of Primary School in Taipei
指導教授:柯鄉黨柯鄉黨引用關係王紀鯤王紀鯤引用關係---
指導教授(外文):KO,HSIANG-TANGWANG,CHI-KUNG
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:淡江大學
系所名稱:建築學系研究所
學門:建築及都市規劃學門
學類:建築學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:1998
畢業學年度:86
語文別:中文
論文頁數:126
中文關鍵詞:開放空間國民小學使用
外文關鍵詞:utilizationopen spaceprimary school
相關次數:
  • 被引用被引用:22
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  • 下載下載:0
  • 收藏至我的研究室書目清單書目收藏:1
本文主要探討國民小學戶外空間之使用現況。並以質化研究方式,針對台
北市九所國小中、
高、低年級學童的下課時間,進行學童遊戲活動與空間使用的參與式觀察
及記錄。分析國小
校園戶外空間之問題與未來調整改善之建議。
壹、國小戶外空間使用現況與問題
在分析台北市國小校園戶外空間的使用問題後,發現(1) 空間的配置
型態與校舍的樓層
設計,無法掌握學童的使用感受與方式,令學童產生不安全與疏離感
;(2) 遊戲場所未依學
童之視角配置,容易產生空間的使用問題,降低兒童對於場所使用的信任。(3)庭園及附屬
設施僅止於填充式的設計,未考慮場所的多變性及學童的選擇性。(4) 遊
戲設施的設置與地
點以成人的觀點為依據,無法使學童對其產生實際的使用,降低遊戲設施
設置的功能。(5) 學
校的規劃設計未能考慮各年齡層生理成長的不同,以至於產生相互間的使
用差異,對學童使
用的過程產生不良影響。
貳、研究結果
一、國民小學校園環境的使用情形與問題
(一)建築物配置影響學童活動型態
封閉型規劃方式,學童對於環境品質感受較差,擁擠感亦較為嚴重,並且不會因為校地
的大小而有顯著改變、而學童通常只在校舍所圍閉之空間內活動。開放式
校舍的規劃,學童
活動範圍較為廣佈。因此,校舍的規劃方式對學童活動範圍及型態有決定性的影響。
(二)樓層使用影響學童至戶外活動的意願
高年級的活動因使用教室多為4-5層樓,其至戶外活動的意願明顯低於樓層設置於三樓
以下之學校學童。而現有學校對於樓層的設置,不因各校空地比或校地比
之大小而有不同。
(三)活動地點分佈影響學童參與性
活動場所及遊戲設施的位置以靠近校舍者,學童活動人數最多,距離教室較遠或較為偏
僻者,其活動人數少。設置於封閉式校舍內之活動場所與遊戲設施,學童
活動的情形較為頻
繁。
(四)庭園設計影響使用感受與意願
庭園對於學童之使用感受好壞,主要與學校空地大小、校舍與庭園之老舊與否以及庭園
之明亮度有關。而空地愈多、樹種愈乾淨、庭園愈明亮,校舍配置呈不規
則,學童認為庭園
較為美觀活潑。
二、學童活動的特徵與內容
(一)團體活動者:低年級學童以追逐活動及玩遊戲設施為主;高年級以球類活動為主。單
獨活動者:低年級學童以從事自我建構之遊戲為主;高年級則以四處閒逛
及休息看別人活動
為主。
(二)隨著年齡的增長,女生從玩遊戲設施轉變為休息聊天,男生則從事
活動量較大的行為。
(三)下課時間較長,學童活動的內容較豐富,活動範圍亦較廣。下課時間短,則學童只在
教室周邊活動。
(四)隨著年齡的增長,兒童遊戲從活動量小的方式,轉變為活動量大且需較大空間的方式
進行。
三、遊戲設施的建立
(一)活動場所應以區分為教學區與遊戲區為原則
教學區以操場及體能訓練為主;遊戲區的設置以下課時學童之遊戲活動為主。因此,在
不干擾教學環境的要求下,以及校地面積允許的情況下,應以區分為原則。
(二)遊戲設施應依高低年級分別設置
為符合高低年級因身體發展上之不同及需求,對於遊戲設施應加以區分。
(三)遊戲器材之設置應結合學童之喜好
遊戲設施的選擇,不應以成人之觀念設置,應依學童之需求,並配合校地規模加以檢討
設置。
This study is to investigate the second, fourth and sixth grade''s student of c
urrent out- door exercise spaces of at nine Taipei primary schools. It is base
d on the qualitative methed, to observe record and interview survey of student
s playing activities and use of open space. Analysis is made on problems open
space and suggestion of future improvement. (1) Current utilization and proble
ms of open space in campus After the analysis on the records, the problems are
(a) The building design and space allocation are not acceptable by the studen
t who felt dangers and isolation. (b) The playing field are not designed from
the view point of the student. Problems on the space utilization and further l
ower the trust to the playground are then derived. (c) Design of the yard and
attached facilities are more or less in the form of filling in without conside
ring the different location, space and pupils'' selection. (d) The facilities a
re designed from the view point of adults and so it could not really be useful
to the student. This further lowered the functions of the facilities. (e) Dev
iation between the student, since during the planning and design stage of the
playing field, didn''t put into consideration the different ages level of the s
tudent. Negective effect is then derived during the utilization of the facilit
ies. (2)Conclusion of the study (A)The utilization and problems of the
campus environment (a)Affection of the school building against the activities
of the studentWorse feeling against environmental quality, especially the cro
wded feeling due to the closed type planning disregards to the land areas of t
he school. The student are then limited to carry out their activities within s
uch bonded building. On the contrary, open type planning of school building w
ill let student to have wider range of activities. The design of school buildi
ng is the decisive factor to the activity range and types. (b)Floors affectio
n against the desire of out-door activities Since higher grade student are mos
tly allocated at the 4th or 5th floor of the building and this will of course
lower their desires of out-door activities as compared to the pupils of 3rd an
d lower floors. The worse is, the design of the current school buildings are n
ot made according to the ratio of the area of open space and the ratio of scho
ol land areas. (c)Participation affection to the activities allocation Those
facilities which are nearby the school building are most welcome while the one
farther is not. The facilities in the closed type school building are frequen
tly utilized. (d)Feeling and willingness affection to yard design The school
open space really affected the utilization feeling of the student. The age of
the school building and the brightness of the yard also affect the student fe
eling is related to the brightness of the designed. (B)The characteristics an
d contents of the activities of pupils (a)Group activities : For lower grade s
tudent, the activities are chasing around and games whereas ball games for hig
her grade. Furthermore, the activities of the lower are self-constructed games
, higher grade student are idling, looking around respectively. (b)Following t
he growing up, the activities of feminine student changes from like to play fa
cilities to chat, the masculine student like to have more active games.(c)Rich
er contents and wider range of activities for longer recess time while the stu
dent like to stay around the class when recess time is short. (d)Following the
growth of the student, the activities changes from limited activities to wide
r range activities. (C)Establishment of the facilities (a)It is better to
divide the areas into educational and amusement Educational area : Mainly for
athletic and body build up Amusement area : Mainly for pupils activities aft
er class The areas shall be divided accordingly under the circumstances that t
here is no affection to the teaching atmosphere and if the area allows.(b)The
amusement facilities shall be set up according to different age levels To meet
the physical requirement of each age level, the amusement facilities shall be
differentiated.(c)Install the playing facilities according to the interest of
studentInstallation of the playing facilities shall not be done from the view
point of adults but the interest of student and the land areas of the school.
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