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研究生:謝淑華
研究生(外文):Hsieh, Shu-Hua
論文名稱:從游擊運動的發展歷程看哥倫比亞的政治暴力文化
論文名稱(外文):Understanding the Culture of Political Violence in Colombia Through the Development of Guerrilla Movements
指導教授:陳雅鴻陳雅鴻引用關係
指導教授(外文):Cheng, Yea-Hong
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:淡江大學
系所名稱:拉丁美洲研究所
學門:社會及行為科學學門
學類:區域研究學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:1998
畢業學年度:86
語文別:中文
論文頁數:194
中文關鍵詞:哥倫比亞游擊運動政治暴力文化
外文關鍵詞:ColombiaGuerrilla movementsCulture of political violence
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  古巴革命所引發的示範效應,帶動拉丁美洲游擊運動的發展。知識份子原本就是最憤世嫉俗的社會族群,在百思不解合法的濟世管道下,許多高級知識份子紛紛拾起武器,深入山區叢林作戰。同樣地,受制於拉丁美洲獗隘的政治發展空間,早先主張合法議會鬥爭路線的各國共產黨,亦重新思索可行的革命與發展戰略。而拉丁美洲許多存在已久的結構問題,諸如社會不公正、對外依賴的經濟關係與普遍貧窮化問題,則順勢發揮推波助瀾之效。
  哥倫比亞雖擁有相當傲人與持久的立憲體制,然淺藏在其民主美譽背後的卻是嚴重的政治暴力問題。從十九世紀初期中央集權派與聯幫主義派的建國理念之爭,到日後延宕一個半世紀之久的自由與保守黨的權力競逐,每每引發激烈的流血衝突。為了杜絕國內的暴亂情勢,兩黨高層人士於一九五八年聯手創立「國家陣線」(Frente Nacional)的權力共享體制;規定除了傳統的自由與保守兩黨外,其餘黨派均被排除在政治進程之外。在合政治參與管道紛遭對閉的情況下,哥國左派革命份子決定改採暴力手段,一時之間游擊組織如雨後春簡般湧現。
  為了懲治左派游擊隊的暴行,哥國政府授與私人機構成立武裝自衛團體的權力。然許多主客觀因素使然,這些自衛團體不僅對付左派游擊隊,任何具有左傾思想的哥國民眾亦成為其迫害的對象。國際外援的斷絕則使左派游擊隊更加倚重綁架、勒贖與非法毒品交易,籌措所需資源,逐漸背離其崇高的革命理想。哥國游擊組織的日後動向除了視其參與和平談判的意願而定外,政府高層與軍隊的態度以及國內經濟社會問題解決與否,均牽一髮而動全身。
  As a result of the Cuban Revolution, guerrilla movements came into vogue in Latin America. Inspired by the Cuban Revolution, the intelligentsia, the most radical group within the society, decided to take up arms and fight in the moutains. Under similar circumstances, the space of political development is so limited for the communist parties that they reconsidered their revolutionary and developmental strategies. Many struvtural problems of Latin America, such as social injustice, the economis relationship of dependence and poverty, all played a part in the development of guerrilla movements.
  Republic of Colombia has a long standing constitutional political system; in the mean time, politcal violence is also serious over there. Both the conflict between centralists and federalists in the early days of eighteenth century and then the fight for power between the Liberal Party and conservative Poarty system; mthe miean tina turned into serious bloodshed. In 1958, the elites of both parties established "Frente Nacional". According to the agreement, other political parties are excluded from the politiacal process. Because all of the lawful channels of political participation were closed, the Colombian Lefts adopted guerrilla warfare as the only one means of revolution.
  In order to curb the violence of the guerrillas, the government of Colombia empowered private institutions to organize armed self-defense groups. As consequence of some subjective and objective reasons, nowadays these groups persecute not only the guerrillas but also people inclined to the Left. In the mean time, the guerrillas rely more heavily on acts such as kidnapping, extortion and drug trafficking to collect resources for the revolution. The possible trend of the guerrillas depend on their purpose to participate in the direct negotiations with the government, the attitude of the military and solutions of the economic and social problems within the country.
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