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研究生:程昭森
研究生(外文):Cheng, Chao-Sen
論文名稱:自由貿易體系與防衛條款機制-歐洲共同體理事會一九九四年第3285號規章之檢討
論文名稱(外文):Free Trade Regime and Safeguard Clause Mechanism -- A Comment on the Council Regulation No.3285/94 of European Community
指導教授:黃銘傑黃銘傑引用關係
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:淡江大學
系所名稱:歐洲研究所
學門:社會及行為科學學門
學類:區域研究學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:1998
畢業學年度:86
語文別:中文
論文頁數:167
中文關鍵詞:自由貿易防衛條款機制歐洲共同體
外文關鍵詞:Free tradeSafeguard clause mechanismEuropean community
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  本論文旨在討論,自由貿易體系(關稅暨貿易總協定一GATT )下,防衛條款機制(GATT 第十九條)運作時所應遵守的原則,以發揮其原本制定的目的,協助GATT/WTO體制正常運作,達成落實自由貿易的目標。同時也藉由討論歐洲共同體理事會一九九四年第3285號規章,以了解歐洲共同體落實WTO防衛協定情形,並進一步評估改革後的防衛協定成效,是否能發揮其功效,協助WTO達成自由貿易的目標。
  在國際貿易體系中,「自由貿易」(Free Trade)一直為經濟學家李嘉圖「比較利益理論」及其隨後的許多學者所延伸出的理論及實證所支持,認為透過貿易的往來,國與國之間貨物搬有過無,其結果能增加產能,提高所得,改善二國的生活水準。而為了落實自由貿易,二次世界大戰結束後地位成也成立了「關稅暨貿易總協定-GATT」期待能達成這個目標,但是事實上,在GATT的諸多貿易自由化的條文之外,尚必須制定一些例外條文,給予加入GATT會員國會,開放其國內市場之後,能有迴旋的空間。GATT第十九條防衛條款即是其中的一例。然而此防衛條款在GATT成立以來,並沒有達到其原本目的發揮其功效,而間接地也影響GATT致力於追求自由貿易的目標。其無法落實的原因,主要有三個原因,(一)條文文義定義不明確,(二)反傾銷及補貼貿易保護措施的取代,(三)「灰色領域措施」的取代。第十九條無法具體落實的原因在鳥拉圭回合談判中已有進一步的改善,各會員國簽定了WTO防衛協定(Agreement on Safeguards)。此防衛協定已改進以往第十九條文字不明確,定義模糊的缺失,只有在「公平」貿易措施和「不公平」貿易救濟措施上,仍存在著不同高低適用標準,因此在未來的適用上,二種救濟措施施行不平的情況,在未來仍有可能會繼續存在。
  而歐洲共同體及其會員國向來為採行進口救濟措施最為頻繁的地區及國家,所以歐洲共同體對於WTO防衛協定內容的執行情形,具有代表性的指標。此理事會一九九四年第3285號規章和WTO防衛協定相比較,在條文上都能相符,唯獨在實際適用上,尚未有案件成立,無法加以評估。對於歐洲共同體遵守防衛協定及WTO防衛協定生效後會員國執行情形的評估工作,則有待進一步觀察。


  This thesis mainly discusses the functioning principal for the safeguard clause mechanism (Art XIX of GATT) under the free trade system (GATT). This urle is designed to achieve the goal of helping the GATT/WTO system function properly with the aim of building a free trade regime. Within the context of this thesis, by presenting the European Community law, it slso evaluates the result of reformed Agreement on Safeguard, whether it function well to achieve the goal of realizing the free trade in the interiational commerce.
  In the internatonal commercial world, "Free Trade" is supported by the Theory of Comparative Advantage by David Ricardo and the other refined theory of comparative advantage and fact. They believe the exchange of goods from trade between countries will increase the productivity, enhance the income of people and improve people's livng atandard. In order to put free trade into practice in the real world. General Agreement on Tariffs and trade--GATT was established after the World War Ⅱ. However, while making the free trade rules of GATT into practice, some exceptional rules were put into the GAtt rules too, gicing the contracting parties to withdraw its free trade obligation when they faced open market diffculty. Art. XIX is just one of these rules. Anyhow Art XLX did not achieve its original purpose after GATT went into effect, besides its poor performance undermined the set-up goal of GATT. There were three major reasons why it did not work out well. One is the substantive requirements are not clearly defined. The other is that the use of Art. XLX is replaced by other import relief rules, such as Anti-dumping rule Art. VI of, Anti-subsidy rule Art. XVI. And the last reason is the replacement of Grey Area Measures. Fortunately the above-mentioned reasons were resolved in the Uruguay Round Multilateral Negotiation, The contracting parties agreed to sign the Agreement on Safeguard--the result of reforming Art. XIX . This reformed Agreement on Safcguard has improved the previous problem of poor defined requirement, but there is still the difference in the substantive requirement between the "fair trade" import relief and "unfair trade " import, which needs to be settled. It is probably that the des-cqual invoking number between the two import relieves will continue exit in the future. Further observation is necessary for the development of the reformed Agreement on Safeguard.
  Since the European community and its member states adopt more import relief measures than any other contracting countries, the compliance which European Community obeys the Agreement on Safegaurd of WTO is the rule of thump for observation. Comparing the Council Regulation No. 3285/94 with the Agreement of Safeguard, the rules of Council Regulation No. 3285/94 comply within the interpretation of the Agreement of Safeguard. However the actual practice of No. 3285/94 is beyond the evaluation, due to the reason that there is no application case ever since the regulation went into effect, The defree that European community obeys the Agreement on Safeguard should be further observed in the future too.

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