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研究生:林仕明
研究生(外文):Shih-Ming Lin
論文名稱:石化污染土壤之生物復育影響因子研究
論文名稱(外文):Factors Affect Biological Remediation of Petroleum Contaminated Soils
指導教授:童翔新童翔新引用關係
指導教授(外文):Shan-Shin Ton
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:逢甲大學
系所名稱:土木及水利工程研究所
學門:工程學門
學類:土木工程學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:1999
畢業學年度:87
語文別:中文
論文頁數:70
中文關鍵詞:柴油土壤污染總石油碳氫化合物生物復育酵素添加法
外文關鍵詞:dieselsoil pollutiontotal petroleum hydrocarbonbioremediationenzyme-addtion
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油品洩漏造成環境污染的問題一直困擾著科學家,以化學或物理處理方式,雖然可以達到快速清除的效果,但是在清除污染物的同時,也再次對環境造成了二次傷害。生物復育法具有經濟、自然且不會造成二次污染的優點,將來發展必定具備無窮的潛力。
本研究採用生物復育法之酵素添加法,藉著添加酵素的方式,來觀察土壤中碳氫化合物利用性微生物是否具有分解土壤中總石油碳氫化合物(total petroleum hydrocarbon, TPH)的能力。並藉由臭氧預處理方式,將結構複雜的碳氫化合物,氧化成構造簡單的碳氫化合物,使微生物能更快速分解碳氫化合物,縮短生物復育耗費之時間。此外討論土壤翻耕曝氣、水分含量、pH值與重金屬等環境因子,對於土壤中微生物數量與TPH衰減率之影響。
研究結果顯示;以翻耕對土壤進行加氧曝氣方式,可以使土壤中碳氫化合物利用性微生物有明顯生長效果,此現象在經過臭氧處理過之實驗組中更為明顯。並且翻耕對於土壤中TPH(特別是柴油部分)揮發亦有很大幫助,TPH最高降解比例可達93%;添加酵素有助於刺激土壤中微生物之再生長,可由臭氧後生物處理組之微生物菌落數相差近100倍得到佐證,當微生物數量增多時,則降解碳氫化合物速度亦能提升;經過臭氧預處理程序,可使土壤中初始TPH降低51%∼80%,再添加酵素,可使微生物恢復生長,加快生物分解速度,縮短生物復育所需耗費冗長的時間。
故由本研究得知,確實控制環境因子,並添加適合土壤微生物生長物質,可以充分降解污染物。如果輔助以臭氧強氧化程序作預先處理,更能加快生物分解速率,縮短生物復育時間。
Oil Spill to pollute the environment has been worried by scientists continuously. By chemical or physical treatments, the pollutants may effectively be removed. But the environment will be hurt again at the same time. Comparatively, bioremediation has the advantage of natural character, less expense and without any adverse effects to the environment. It obviously has great potential in the future.
Bioremediation of enzyme-adding has been used in this experiment. By adding enzyme to the contaminated soil, we observed the capability of hydrocarbon-utilizing bacteria to decompose the total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) in the soil. Ozonation has also been applied to break down the complex hydrocarbon compounds into simple ones, to reduce the duration of bioremediation. Factors such as soil aeration, water contents, pH and heavy metals have been discussed to understand the impacts of microbial activities and TPH degradation rate on the soil.
The experiment results show that, aeration of the soils can greatly enhance the growth of hydrocarbon-utilizing bacteria in the soil. This phenomenon is very assured in ozonation pretreatment. Aeration also helps in evaporation (especially for diesel) of TPH in the soil. The highest degree of degradation ups to 93%. Addition of enzyme is good for stimulating the regrowth of microbial in the soils as well, it is evidenced by the 100 times increased of bacteria counts in post-ozonation treatments. The degradation rate of hydrocarbon compounds was accelerated when the quantity of bacteria increased. The initial TPH of the soil has been reduced by ozonation from 51% to 80%. The addition of enzyme stimulated bacteria growth, accelerated biodegradation rate; therefore, shorten the long-winded time that bioremediation needed.
It is concluded that properly controls the environmental factors and supply adequate materials for the growth of bacteria in the soil can degrade the pollutants completely. The application of ozonation as the pretreatment process accelerates the degradation rate can further shorten the time of bioremediation.
中文摘要 Ⅰ
英文摘要 Ⅱ
目錄 Ⅳ
圖目錄 Ⅵ
表目錄 Ⅶ
第一章 緒論 1
1.1 前言 1
1.2 動機及目的 1
第二章 文獻回顧 4
2.1 油品之種類、成分及基本性質 4
2.2 油品污染對環境及人體之影響 6
2.3 石油碳氫化合物在土壤中之傳輸及宿命 10
2.4 微生物與石油碳氫化合物之關係 13
2.5 酵素的利用性 17
2.6 土壤中之重金屬 18
2.7 生物復育 19
第三章 實驗設備及實驗方法 22
3.1 研究方法 22
3.2 實驗設備 26
3.3 實驗材料 32
3.4 分析方法 32
第四章 結果與討論 40
4.1 pH值 40
4.2 含水率 41
4.3 土壤中重金屬含量 42
4.4 生物菌落計數 43
4.5 TPH濃度分析 51
4.6 臭氧預處理對TPH的影響 61
第五章 結論與建議 63
5.1 結論 63
5.2 建議 64
參考書目 65
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