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研究生:高心怡
研究生(外文):Sandy Hsin-Yi Kao
論文名稱:從巴赫汀理論省思認同問題:《所羅門之歌》中時空性、對話性及民歌之研究
論文名稱(外文):A Bakhtinean Reading On The Issue Of Identity: The Time-Space Continuum, Voices And Folk Songs In Toni Morrison's Song Of Solomon
指導教授:劉雪珍劉雪珍引用關係
指導教授(外文):Cecilia< H.C. LIU
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:輔仁大學
系所名稱:英國語文學系
學門:人文學門
學類:外國語文學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:1999
畢業學年度:87
語文別:英文
論文頁數:86
中文關鍵詞:巴赫汀時空性多音性民歌神話成長小說認同非裔美籍文化
外文關鍵詞:BakhtinChronotopeHeteroglossiaFolk SongsMythBildungsroman or novel of initiationIdentityAfro-American Culture
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本論文主要探討彤妮.莫莉森的《所羅門之歌》 中主角乳仔(Milkman)自我認知的問題。透過巴赫汀理論中的時空性,多音性及社會性討論個人的自我成長。 乳仔一開始對自己的家庭歷史毫無所悉,但經歷一段心靈之旅,他發現眾人闡述的過去,頻現的民歌...皆記錄著家庭歷史背景。 當他將故事、歌唱、地名...拼湊,瞭解到自己存在的意義並非一眛的尋金夢, 而是尋求祖先遺留的文化精華。
本文分為三部分。 第一部分以乳仔的成長為主軸,透過時空的交錯,乳仔體驗到時間不僅停留於現在,而他必須瞭解過去的意義,才可得知未來的去向。 而當乳仔邁向未來的同時,他的旅程卻也領導他走向過去。 事實上,乳仔的行徑與當時他的祖先於黑奴解放後尋求美國夢之路徑相反,北方象徵著美麗之地,然而在獲得財富之際,卻面臨“無根”的危機。 因此,他的旅行帶領他前往祖先在南方所留下的足跡。
第二部分從小說中的眾聲喧嘩探討乳仔如何由眾人述說過去分辨其可靠性。 每個人的故事皆為片面之辭,而乳仔須從不同版本中得到完整的過去。 值得注意的是, 小說中聲音的衝突使乳仔感到困惑,其中以乳仔的父親及姑姑最為明顯。 前者代表父權及金錢的優越性,亦代表多數人的價值觀--資本主義的趨勢。 因此可視為向心力--將乳仔推向中心。 然而, 乳仔的姑姑則帶領他尋求心靈的滿足,相較於金錢的弱勢下,姑姑的聲音代表離心力--將乳仔拉向邊緣。 在此二聲的衝突中,乳仔終究領悟根的呼喚,放棄原來所追求的金權,投向祖先的懷抱。 此時乳仔心中原本的離心力衍變為向心力,使他成為一個有中心思想的人。
第三部分藉由非裔美籍中的神話及民歌分析歷史與社會對自我認知的影響。在小說中,飛翔的意象藉神話及民歌反覆出現,象徵黑人文化中對自由的渴望。再者,名字亦記錄著個人與家族的歷史。 而七日團體 (黑人報復白人對其不平等待遇之地下組織) 則反映社會中的種族問題。這一切現象再次值得讀者思考個人與社會,個人與文化的關係。 乳仔在經歷一趟心零之旅領悟民歌敘述他的家族歷史,名字記錄他的過去,亦體會為何他的祖先透過心靈的飛翔得到真正的自由與解放。
《所羅門之歌》 雖然為一開放性結局小說,不可否認此結構提供讀者更多想像空間思考是否乳仔最終學會飛翔,或者航向死亡。 誠如莫莉森所說: "結局是充滿愛的" (Ruas 111)。 乳仔終究更加瞭解自己,體諒他人,更重要的是--去愛他人。

This thesis centers on the issue of identity in Toni Morrison's_ Song of Solomon_ with Bakhtin's concepts of time-space continuum, mutiple voices and cultural aspects. The goal is to explore the problem of identity through the growth of Macon Dead III [Milkman], the protagonist, in the novel. As Milkman undergoes his journey to find his selfhood, he hears different versions of family history, travels various places, and finally traces back to his past and root. When Milkman comes to realize the meaning of his family song, he understands who he is and what he will become.
The contentis divided into three parts--the time and space continuum, the different voices and the folk songs--the function and meaning of each section make Milkman perceive a more complete vision of his past as well as himself. Each part plays a significant role in the process of Milkman's transformation. When he is able to connect the past, places, various stories and the songs together, Milkman becomes a person with past, present and future. Through analyzing these elemetns in Song of Solomon, hofefully we will have a better understanding of the quest of identity and a chace to experience the uniqueness of Afro-American culture.

Introduction---------------------------------------------------------------1
Chapter I Time and Space Continuum-------------------------------12
Chapter II Multiple Voices---------------------------------------------30
Chapter III Myth and Folk Songs as "Collective Memories"--------52
Conclusion ---------------------------------------------------------------73
Works Cited--------------------------------------------------------------79
Works Conculted--------------------------------------------------------83

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of Mississippi, 1994. 30-42.
---, “Failures of Love: Female Initiation in the Novels of
Toni Morrison.” American Literature 52.4 (1981): 541-63.
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(1977).” The Afro-American Novel Since 1960. Ed. Peter
Bruck and Wolfgan Karrer. Amsterdam: B.R.Gruner,
1982. 289-305.
Butler-Evans, Elliott. “Politics of Carnival and
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Ralph Ellison’s Invisible Man: Dialogic Criticism and
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Histories, Institution and Interventions. Ed. David
Palumbo-Liu. Minneapolis: U of Minnesota P,1995. 117-39.
Christian, Barbara. “Community and Nature: The Novels of Toni
Morrison (1980).” Black Feminist Criticism: Perspectives
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Davis, Cynthia A. “Self, Society, and Myth in ToniMorrison’s
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Harold Bloom. New York: Chelsea House P, 1990. 7-26.
Demetrakopoulos, Stephanie A. “The Interdepedence of Men’s
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A Biracial and Bicultural Reading of the Novels of Toni
Morrison. New York: Greenwood P, 1987. 85-100.
Draper, James P.,ed. “Toni Morrison.” Black Literature
Criticism. Vol. 3. Detroit: Gale Research, 1992. 1422-45.
Farrell, Susan. “‘Who’d He Leave Behind?’: Gender and
History in Toni Morrison’s Song of Solomon.” Bucknell
Review 39.1 (1995):131-50.
Furman, Jan. “Male Consciousness: Song of Solomon.” Toni
Morrison's Fiction. Columbia: U of South Carolina P,
1996. 34-48.
Guth, Deborah. “A Blessing and a Burden: the Relation to the
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Harris, Trudier. “Song of Solomon.” Fiction and Folklore:
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York: Routledge, 1990.
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Mississippi, 1994. 67-83.
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UP, 1995. 19-40.
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Otten, Terry. “Song of Solomon.” The Crime of Innocence in
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the Search for Self in Song of Solomon.” Toni Morrison.
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Toni Morrison: Critical Perspectives Past and Present.
Ed. Henry Louis Gates and K.A. Appiah. New York: Amistad,
1993. 274-83.
---, “Toni Morrison’s Narratives of Community.” Self
Discovery and Authority in Afro-American Narrative.
Cambridge: Harvard UP, 1987. 122-53.
Spallino, Chiara. “Song of Solomon: An Adventure in
Structure.” Callaloo 8.3 (1985): 510-24.
Story, Ralph. “An Excursion into the Black World: ‘The Seven
Days’ in Toni Morrison’s Song of Solomon.” Black
American Literature Forum 23.1 (1989): 149-58.
Thomas, Jackie. “The Symbolic Black Male Ancestor in Song of
Solomon.” Literary Griot 5.1 (1993): 51-7.
Traore, Ousseynou. “Creative African Memory: Some Oral
Sources of Toni Morrison’s Song of Solomon.” Of Dreams
Deferred, Dead of Alive. Ed. Femi Ojo-Ade. Westport:
Greenwood P, 1996. 129-41.
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Toni Morrison. Ed. Danille Taylor-Guthrie. Jackson: UP
of Mississippi, 1994. 43-7.
Willis, Susan. “Eruptions of Funk: Historicizing Toni
Morrison.” Black Literature and Literary Theory. Ed.
Henry Louis Gates, Jr. New York: Methuen, 1984. 263-83.
Works Cited
Baker, Houston A. Jr. “Completely Well: One View of Black American Culture.” Long Black Song. Charlottesville: UP of Virginia, 1997. 1-16.
Bakerman, Jane. “The Seams Can’t Show: An Interview with Toni Morrison.”
Conversations with Toni Morrison. Ed. Danille Taylor-Guthrie. Jackson: UP
of Mississippi, 1994. 30-42.
---, “Failures of Love: Female Initiation in the Novels of Toni Morrison.” American
Literature 52.4 (1981): 541-63.
Bell, Berbard W. The Afro-American Novel and Its Tradition. Amherst: U of
Massachusetts P, 1987.
Brenkman, John. “Politics and Form in Song of Solomon.” SocialText39 (1994):
57-82.
Bruck, Peter. “Returning to One’s Roots: The Motif of Searching and Flying in
Toni Morrison’s Song of Solomon (1977).” The Afro-American Novel Since
1960. Ed. Peter Bruck and Wolfgan Karrer. Amsterdam: B.R.Gruner,
1982. 289-305.
Butler-Evans, Elliott. “Politics of Carnival and Heteroglossia in Toni Morrison’s
Song of Solomon and Ralph Ellison’s Invisible Man: Dialogic Criticism and
African American Literature.” The Ethnic Canon: Histories, Institution
and Interventions. Ed. David Palumbo-Liu. Minneapolis: U of Minnesota P,
1995. 117-39.
Christian, Barbara. “Community and Nature: The Novels of Toni Morrison
(1980).” Black Feminist Criticism: Perspectives on Black Women Writers.
New York: Pergamon P, 1986. 47-63.
Davis, Cynthia A. “Self, Society, and Myth in Toni Morrison’s Fiction.”
Modern Critical View: Toni Morrison. Ed. Harold Bloom. New York:
Chelsea House P, 1990. 7-26.
Demetrakopoulos, Stephanie A. “The Interdepedence of Men’s Women’s
Individuation.” New Dimensions of Spirituality: A Biracial and Bicultural
Reading of the Novels of Toni Morrison. New York: Greenwood P, 1987.
85-100.
Draper, James P.,ed. “Toni Morrison.” Black Literature Criticism. Vol. 3.
Detroit: Gale Research, 1992. 1422-45.
Farrell, Susan. “‘Who’d He Leave Behind?’: Gender and History in Toni
Morrison’s Song of Solomon.” Bucknell Review 39.1 (1995):131-50.
Furman, Jan. “Male Consciousness: Song of Solomon.” Toni Morrison’s
Fiction. Columbia: U of South Carolina P, 1996. 34-48.
Guth, Deborah. “A Blessing and a Burden: the Relation to the Past in Sula,
Song of Solomon and Beloved.” Modern Fiction 39.3-4 (1993): 575-96.
Hamilton, Virginia. The People Could Fly: American Black Folktales. New York:
Knopf, 1985.
Harris, A Leslie. “Myth as Structure in Toni Morrison’s Song of Solomon.”
MELUS 7.3 (1980): 69-82.
Harris, Trudier. “Song of Solomon.” Fiction and Folklore: The Novels of
Toni Morrison. Knoxville: U of Tennessee P, 1991. 85-115.
Holloway, Karla F. C. “The Lyrics of Salvation.” New Dimensions of Spirituality: A
Biracial and Bicultural Reading of the Novels of Toni Morrison. New York: Greenwood P, 1987. 101-14.
Holquist, Michael. Dialogism: Bakhtin and his World. New York: Routledge,
1990.
Hovet, Grace Ann and Barbara Lounsberry. “Flying as Symbol and Legend
in Toni Morrison’s The Bluest Eye, Sula, and Song of Solomon.” CLA
27.1 (1983): 119-40.
Jones, Bessie W. and Audrey Vinson. “An Interview with Toni Morrison.”
Conversations with Toni Morrison. Ed. Danille Taylor-Guthrie. Jackson:
UP of Mississippi, 1994. 171-87.
LeClair, Thomas. “The Language Must Not Sweat: A Conversation with Toni
Morrison.” Conversations with Toni Morrison. Ed. Danille Taylor-Guthrie.
Jackson: UP of Mississippi, 1994. 119-128.
Lee, Dorothy H. “Song of Solomon: To Ride the Air.” Black American
Literature Forum 16.2 (1982): 64-70.
Koenen, Ann. “The One out of Sequence.” Conversations with Toni Morrison.
Ed. Danille Taylor-Guthrie. Jackson: UP of Mississippi, 1994. 67-83.
McKay, Neille. “An Interview with Toni Morrison.” Conversations with Toni
Morrison. Ed. Danille Taylor-Guthrie. Jackson: UP of Mississippi, 1994.
138-55.
Martin, Jacky. “The Character and Its Double.” A World of Difference: An
Intercultural Study of Toni Morrison’s Novels. Westport: Greenwood P, 1994.
37-60.
Martin, William. “Linear and Non-linear Concepts of Time in Toni Morrison’s
Song of Solomon.” Notes on Contemporary Literature 26.3 (1996): 9-11.
Middleton, Joyce Irene. “From Orality to Literacy: Oral Memory in Toni Morrison’s
Song of Solomon.” New Essays on Toni Morrison. Ed. Valerie Smith.
New York: Cambridge UP, 1995. 19-40.
Mobley, Marilyn Sanders. “Myth as Usable Past: Affirmation of Community
and Self in Song of Solomon.” Folk Roots and Mythic Wings in Sarah
Orne Jewett and Toni Morrison: The Cultural Function of Narrative.
Baton Rouge: Louisiana State UP, 1991. 91-133.
---. “Call and Response: Voice, Community, and Dialogic Structures in Toni
Morrison’s Song of Solomon.” New Essays on Song of Solomon.
Ed. Valerie Smith. New York: Cambridge, 1995.
Morris, Pam, ed. The Bakhtin Reader: Selected Writings of Bakhtin, Medvedev,
Voloshinov. New York: Arnold, 1994.
Morrison, Toni. Song of Solomon. New York: Knopf, 1987.
---. “Rootedness: The Ancestor as Foundation.” Black Women Writers
(1950-1980): A Critical Evaluation. Ed. Mari Evans. New York:
Doubledays, 1988. 339-69.
O’Shaughnessy, Kathleen. “‘Life, life life life’: The Community as Chorus
in Song of Solomon.” Critical Essays on Toni Morrison. Ed. Nellie Y.
MaKay. Boston: G.K. Hall, 1988. 125-34.
Otten, Terry. “Song of Solomon.” The Crime of Innocence in the Fiction
of Toni Morrison. Columbia: UP of Missouri, 1991. 45-62.
Page, Philip. “Putting It All Together: Attempted Unification in Song of
Solomon.” Dangerous Freedom: Fusion and Fragmentation in Toni
Morrison’s Novels. Jackson: UP of Mississippi, 1995. 84-107.
Ruas, Charles. “Toni Morrison.” Conversations with Toni Morrison. Ed. Danille
Taylor-Guthrie. Jackson: UP of Mississippi, 1994. 93-118.
Ruberstein, Roberta. “Pariahs and Community.” Toni Morrison: Critical
Perspectives Past and Present. Ed Henry Louis Gates, Jr., and K. A. Appiah.
New York: Amistad, 1993. 126-58.
Sameuls, Wilfred D, and Clenora Hudson-Weems. “Liminality and the
Search for Self in Song of Solomon.” Toni Morrison. Boston:
Twayne P, 1990. 53-78.
Smith, Valerie. “Song of Solomon: Continuity of Community.” Toni
Morrison: Critical Perspectives Past and Present. Ed. Henry Louis
Gates and K.A. Appiah. New York: Amistad, 1993. 274-83.
---, “Toni Morrison’s Narratives of Community.” Self Discovery and
Authority in Afro-American Narrative. Cambridge: Harvard UP,
1987. 122-53.
Spallino, Chiara. “Song of Solomon: An Adventure in Structure.” Callaloo
8.3 (1985): 510-24.
Story, Ralph. “An Excursion into the Black World: ‘The Seven Days’ in Toni
Morrison’s Song of Solomon.” Black American Literature Forum
23.1 (1989): 149-58.
Thomas, Jackie. “The Symbolic Black Male Ancestor in Song of Solomon.”
Literary Griot 5.1 (1993): 51-7.
Traore, Ousseynou. “Creative African Memory: Some Oral Sources of Toni
Morrison’s Song of Solomon.” Of Dreams Deferred, Dead of Alive.
Ed. Femi Ojo-Ade. Westport: Greenwood P, 1996. 129-41.
Watkins, Mel. “Talk with Toni Morrison.” Conversations with Toni Morrison.
Ed. Danille Taylor-Guthrie. Jackson: UP of Mississippi, 1994. 43-7.
Willis, Susan. “Eruptions of Funk: Historicizing Toni Morrison.” Black
Literature and Literary Theory. Ed. Henry Louis Gates, Jr. New
York: Methuen, 1984. 263-83.
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Evans. New York: Doubleday, 1984. 346-60.
Marshall, Brenda. “The Gospel According to Pilate.” American Literature
57.3(1985): 486-89.
Matus, Jill. Toni Morrison: Contemporary World Writers. New York:
Manchester UP, 1998.
Mbalia, Doreatha Drummond. “Song of Solomon: The Struggle for Race
and Class Consciousness.” Toni Morrison’s Developing Class
Consciousness. Selingsgrove: Susquehanna UP, 1991. 50-66.
Mason, Theodore O. Jr. “The Novelist as Conservator: Stories and
Comprehension in Toni Morrison’s Song of Solomon.” Modern Critical
View: Toni Morrison. Ed. Harold Bloom. New York: Chelsea House
P, 1990. 171-88.
Morsrison, Toni. Beloved. New York: Penguin, 1987.
---. Paradise. New York: Knopf, 1997.
---. Sula. London: Pan Book, 1991.
---. The Bluest Eye. New York: Penguin,1994.
--. “Unspeakable Things Unspoken: The Afro-American Presence in American
Literature.” Criticism and the Color Line: Desegregating American Literary
Studies. New Brunswick: Rutgers UP, 1996. 16-29
Peach, Linden. “Song of Solomon.” Modern Novelists: Toni Morrison.
New York: St. Martin’s P, 1995. 55-74.
Pinsker, Sanford. “Magic Realism, Historical Truth, and the Quest for a
Liberating Identity: Reflections on Alex Haley’s Roots and Toni
Morrison’s Song of Solomon.” Studies in Black American Literature:
Black American Prose Theory. Ed. Joe Weixlmann and Chester J.
Fontenot. Vol 1. Greenwood: Penkevill, 1984. 183-97.
Rigney, Barbara Hill. “Hagar’s Mirror: Self and Identity.” The Voices of
Toni Morrison. Columbus: Ohio State UP, 1991. 35-60.
Smith, Valerie, ed. New Essays on Song of Solomon. New York: Cambridge
UP, 1995.
Stryz, Jan. “Inscribing An Origin in Song of Solomon.” Studies in
American Fiction 19.1 (1991): 13-40.
Wagner, Linda W. “Toni Morrison: Mastery of Narrative.” Contemporary
American Women Writers: Narrative Strategies. Ed. Catherine
Rainwater and William J. Scheick. Lexington: UP of Kentucky,
1985. 191-207.
Weever, de Jacqueline. “Mythmaking: Intertextuality, Inversion, and
Metaphor.” Mythmaking and Metaphor in Black Women’s Fiction.
New York: St. Martin’s P, 1991. 21-59.
Wegs, Joyce M. “Toni Morrison’s Song of Solomon: A Blues Song.”
Essays in Literature 9.2 (1982):211-23.
Wilentz, Gay. “Civilizations Underneath: African Heritage as Cultural
Discourse in Toni Morrison’s Song of Solomon.” African American
Review 26.1 (1992): 61-76.
Chicago: U of Chicago
P, 1991. 136-61.
Blake, Susan L. “Folklore and Community in Song of Solomon.” MELUS
7.3 (1980): 77-82.
Branch, Eleanor. “Through the Maze of the Oedipal: Milkman’s Search for
Self in Song of Solomon.” Literature and Psychology 41.1-2 (1995): 52-84.
Brenner, Gerry. “Song of Solomon: Rejecting Rank’s Monomyth and Feminism.”
Critical Essays on Toni Morrison. Ed. Nellie Y. Mckay.Boston: G.K. Hall,
1988. 114-24.
Byerman, Keith E. “Beyond Realism: The Fictions of Toni Morrison.”Modern
Critical View: Toni Morrison. Ed. Harold Bloom. New York: Chelsea House
P, 1990. 55-74.
Coser, Stelamaries. “The Redefinition of American Geography and History:
Toni Morrison’s Song of Solomon and Tar Baby.” Bridging the Americas:
The Literature of Paule Marshall, Toni Morrison, and Gayle Jones.
Philadelphia: Temple UP, 1995. 1-26.
Dixon, Melvin. “Like an Eagle in the Air: Toni Morrison.” Modern Critical View:
Toni Morrison. Ed. Harold Bloom. New York: Chelsea House P, 1990.
115-42.
Evans, James H. “The Recovery of Sacred Myth: Toni Morrison’s Song of
Solomon.” Spiritual Empowerment in Afro-American Literature.
New York: Edwin Mellen P, 1986. 131-60.
Fabre, Genevieve. “Genealogical Archaeology of the Quest for Legacy in
Toni Morrison’s Song of Solomon.” Critical Essays on Toni Morrison.
Ed. Nellie Y McKay. Boston: G.K.Hall, 1988. 105-13.
Harding, Wendy and Jacky Martin. “The Character and Its Double” A
World of Difference: An Inter-cultural Study of Toni Morrison’s Novels.
Westport: Greenwood P, 1994. 37-60.
Heinze, Denise.“ Distant Mothers.” The Dilemma of Double-Consciousness :
Toni Morrison’s Novels. Athens: U of Georgia P, 1993. 82-169.
Heyman, Richard. “Universalizaion and Its Discontents: Morrison’s Song of
Solomon-A (W)hol(e)y Black Text.” African American Review
29.3(1995): 381-92.
Hirsch, Marianne. “Knowing Their Names: Toni Morrison’s Song of
Solomon.” New Essays on Song of Solomon. Ed. Valerie Smith.
New York: Cambridge UP, 1995. 69-92.
Holloway, Karla F. C. “The Lyrical Dimensions of Spirituality: Music, Voice
and Language in the Novels of Toni Morrison.” Embodied Voices:
Representing Female Vocality in Western Culture. Ed. Leslie C. Dunn
and Nancy A Jones. New York: Cambridge UP, 1994. 197-211.
Jones, Bessie W. “Vacant Places: Setting in the Novels of Toni Morrison.”
The World of Toni Morrison: Exploration in Literary Criticism.
Dubuque: Kendall/Hunt, 1985. 37-46.
Jones, Gayl. “Motives of Folktale: Toni Morrison’s Song of Solomon.”
Liberating Voices: Oral Tradition in African American Literature.
Cambridge: Harvard UP, 1991. 170-77.
Krumholz, Linda. “Dead Teachers: Rituals of Manhood and Rituals of
Reading Song of Solomon.” Modern Fiction 39.3-4 (1993): 551-73.
---. “The Quest for Self: Triumph and Failure in the Works of Toni Morrison.”
Black Women Writer (1950-1980): A Critical Evaluation. Ed. Mari
Evans. New York: Doubleday, 1984. 346-60.
Marshall, Brenda. “The Gospel According to Pilate.” American Literature
57.3(1985): 486-89.
Matus, Jill. Toni Morrison: Contemporary World Writers. New York:
Manchester UP, 1998.
Mbalia, Doreatha Drummond. “Song of Solomon: The Struggle for Race
and Class Consciousness.” Toni Morrison’s Developing Class
Consciousness. Selingsgrove: Susquehanna UP, 1991. 50-66.
Mason, Theodore O. Jr. “The Novelist as Conservator: Stories and
Comprehension in Toni Morrison’s Song of Solomon.” Modern Critical
View: Toni Morrison. Ed. Harold Bloom. New York: Chelsea House
P, 1990. 171-88.
Morsrison, Toni. Beloved. New York: Penguin, 1987.
---. Paradise. New York: Knopf, 1997.
---. Sula. London: Pan Book, 1991.
---. The Bluest Eye. New York: Penguin,1994.
--. “Unspeakable Things Unspoken: The Afro-American Presence in American
Literature.” Criticism and the Color Line: Desegregating American Literary
Studies. New Brunswick: Rutgers UP, 1996. 16-29
Peach, Linden. “Song of Solomon.” Modern Novelists: Toni Morrison.
New York: St. Martin’s P, 1995. 55-74.
Pinsker, Sanford. “Magic Realism, Historical Truth, and the Quest for a
Liberating Identity: Reflections on Alex Haley’s Roots and Toni
Morrison’s Song of Solomon.” Studies in Black American Literature:
Black American Prose Theory. Ed. Joe Weixlmann and Chester J.
Fontenot. Vol 1. Greenwood: Penkevill, 1984. 183-97.
Rigney, Barbara Hill. “Hagar’s Mirror: Self and Identity.” The Voices of
Toni Morrison. Columbus: Ohio State UP, 1991. 35-60.
Smith, Valerie, ed. New Essays on Song of Solomon. New York: Cambridge
UP, 1995.
Stryz, Jan. “Inscribing An Origin in Song of Solomon.” Studies in
American Fiction 19.1 (1991): 13-40.
Wagner, Linda W. “Toni Morrison: Mastery of Narrative.” Contemporary
American Women Writers: Narrative Strategies. Ed. Catherine
Rainwater and William J. Scheick. Lexington: UP of Kentucky,
1985. 191-207.
Weever, de Jacqueline. “Mythmaking: Intertextuality, Inversion, and
Metaphor.” Mythmaking and Metaphor in Black Women’s Fiction.
New York: St. Martin’s P, 1991. 21-59.
Wegs, Joyce M. “Toni Morrison’s Song of Solomon: A Blues Song.”
Essays in Literature 9.2 (1982):211-23.
Wilentz, Gay. “Civilizations Underneath: African Heritage as Cultural
Discourse in Toni Morrison’s Song of Solomon.” African American
Review 26.1 (1992): 61-76.
Works Consulted
Ashe, Bertram D. “‘Why don’ he like my hair?’:Constructing
African-American Standards of Beauty in Toni Morrison's
Song of Solomon and Zora Neale Hurston’s Their Eyes were
watching God.” African American Review 29.4 (1995):
579-92.
Baker, Houston A. Jr. “On Knowing Our Place.” Workings of
the Spirit: The Poetics of Afro-American Women's
Writing. Chicago: U of Chicago P, 1991. 136-61.
Blake, Susan L. “Folklore and Community in Song of
Solomon.” MELUS 7.3 (1980): 77-82.
Branch, Eleanor. “Through the Maze of the Oedipal: Milkman’s
Search for Self in Song of Solomon.” Literature and
Psychology 41.1-2 (1995): 52-84.
Brenner, Gerry. “Song of Solomon: Rejecting Rank’s Monomyth
and Feminism.” Critical Essays on Toni Morrison. Ed.
Nellie Y. Mckay.Boston: G.K. Hall, 1988. 114-24.
Byerman, Keith E. “Beyond Realism: The Fictions of Toni
Morrison.”Modern Critical View: Toni Morrison. Ed.
Harold Bloom. New York: Chelsea House P, 1990. 55-74.
Coser, Stelamaries. “The Redefinition of American Geography
and History: Toni Morrison’s Song of Solomon and Tar
Baby.” Bridging the Americas: The Literature of Paule
Marshall, Toni Morrison, and Gayle Jones. Philadelphia:
Temple UP, 1995. 1-26.
Dixon, Melvin. “Like an Eagle in the Air: Toni Morrison.”
Modern Critical View: Toni Morrison. Ed. Harold Bloom.
New York: Chelsea House P, 1990. 115-42.
Evans, James H. “The Recovery of Sacred Myth: ToniMorrison's
Song of Solomon.” Spiritual Empowerment in Afro-American
Literature. New York: Edwin Mellen P, 1986. 131-60.
Fabre, Genevieve. “Genealogical Archaeology of the Quest for
Legacy in Toni Morrison’s Song of Solomon.” Critical
Essays on Toni Morrison. Ed. Nellie Y McKay. Boston:
G.K.Hall, 1988. 105-13.
Harding, Wendy and Jacky Martin. “The Character and Its
Double” A World of Difference: An Inter-cultural Study
of Toni Morrison’s Novels. Westport: Greenwood P, 1994.
37-60.
Heinze, Denise.“ Distant Mothers.” The Dilemma of Double-
Consciousness : Toni Morrison’s Novels. Athens: U of
Georgia P, 1993. 82-169.
Heyman, Richard. “Universalizaion and Its Discontents:
Morrison’s Song of Solomon-A (W)hol(e)y Black Text.”
African American Review 29.3(1995): 381-92.
Hirsch, Marianne. “Knowing Their Names: Toni Morrison’s Song
of Solomon.” New Essays on Song of Solomon. Ed. Valerie
Smith. New York: Cambridge UP, 1995. 69-92.
Holloway, Karla F. C. “The Lyrical Dimensions of
Spirituality: Music, Voice and Language in the Novels of
Toni Morrison.” Embodied Voices: Representing Female
Vocality in Western Culture. Ed. Leslie C. Dunn and Nancy
A Jones. New York: Cambridge UP, 1994. 197-211.
Jones, Bessie W. “Vacant Places: Setting in the Novels of
Toni Morrison.” The World of Toni Morrison: Exploration
in Literary Criticism. Dubuque: Kendall/Hunt, 1985.
37-46.
Jones, Gayl. “Motives of Folktale: Toni Morrison’s Song of
Solomon.” Liberating Voices: Oral Tradition in African
American Literature. Cambridge: Harvard UP, 1991.
170-77.
Krumholz, Linda. “Dead Teachers: Rituals of Manhood and
Rituals of Reading Song of Solomon.” Modern Fiction
39.3-4 (1993): 551-73.
---. “The Quest for Self: Triumph and Failure in the Works of
Toni Morrison.”Black Women Writer (1950-1980): A
Critical Evaluation. Ed. Mari Evans. New York:
Doubleday, 1984. 346-60.
Marshall, Brenda. “The Gospel According to Pilate.”
American Literature 57.3(1985): 486-89.
Matus, Jill. Toni Morrison: Contemporary World Writers. New
York: Manchester UP, 1998.
Mbalia, Doreatha Drummond. “Song of Solomon: The Struggle for
Race and Class Consciousness.” Toni Morrison’s
Developing Class Consciousness. Selingsgrove: Susquehanna
UP, 1991. 50-66.
Mason, Theodore O. Jr. “The Novelist as Conservator: Stories
and Comprehension in Toni Morrison’s Song of Solomon.”
Modern Critical View: Toni Morrison. Ed. Harold Bloom.
New York: Chelsea House P, 1990. 171-88.
Morsrison, Toni. Beloved. New York: Penguin, 1987.
---. Paradise. New York: Knopf, 1997.
---. Sula. London: Pan Book, 1991.
---. The Bluest Eye. New York: Penguin,1994.
--. “Unspeakable Things Unspoken: The Afro-American Presence
in American Literature.” Criticism and the Color Line:
Desegregating American Literary Studies. New Brunswick:
Rutgers UP, 1996. 16-29
Peach, Linden. “Song of Solomon.” Modern Novelists: Toni
Morrison. New York: St. Martin’s P, 1995. 55-74.
Pinsker, Sanford. “Magic Realism, Historical Truth, and the
Quest for a Liberating Identity: Reflections on Alex
Haley’s Roots and Toni Morrison’s Song of Solomon.”
Studies in Black American Literature: Black American Prose
Theory. Ed. Joe Weixlmann and Chester J. Fontenot.
Vol1. Greenwood: Penkevill, 1984. 183-97.
Rigney, Barbara Hill. “Hagar’s Mirror: Self and Identity.”
The Voices of Toni Morrison. Columbus: Ohio State UP,
1991. 35-60.
Smith, Valerie, ed. New Essays on Song of Solomon. New York:
Cambridge UP, 1995.
Stryz, Jan. “Inscribing An Origin in Song of Solomon.”
Studies in American Fiction 19.1 (1991): 13-40.
Wagner, Linda W. “Toni Morrison: Mastery of Narrative.”
Contemporary American Women Writers: Narrative
Strategies. Ed. Catherine Rainwater and William J.
Scheick. Lexington: UP of Kentucky, 1985. 191-207.
Weever, de Jacqueline. “Mythmaking: Intertextuality,
Inversion, and Metaphor.” Mythmaking and Metaphor in
Black Women’s Fiction. New York: St. Martin’s P,
1991. 21-59.
Wegs, Joyce M. “Toni Morrison’s Song of Solomon: A Blues
Song.” Essays in Literature 9.2 (1982):211-23.
Wilentz, Gay. “Civilizations Underneath: African Heritage as
Cultural Discourse in Toni Morrison’s Song of
Solomon.” African American Review 26.1 (1992):
61-76.

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