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研究生:陳美珍
研究生(外文):May-Chen Chen
論文名稱:草花與禾草混植及其生長生理反應之研究
論文名稱(外文):Study on The Growth Physiological Responses by Mixed Sowing of Flowering Herbs and Grasses
指導教授:林信輝林信輝引用關係
指導教授(外文):Shin-Hwei Lin
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立中興大學
系所名稱:水土保持學系
學門:農業科學學門
學類:水土保持學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:1999
畢業學年度:87
語文別:中文
論文頁數:69
中文關鍵詞:混植生長生理草花禾草
外文關鍵詞:MixedGrowth PhysiologicalFlowering HerbsGrasses
相關次數:
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本試驗選取水土保持草類及園藝景觀上常用之地被草花百慕達草、天人菊及日日春為供試植物,測定其對主要環境因子變化之反應,探討其在不同比率混植後,植物形態及基本生理上之變化,並探討草花混植之最佳的組合。茲將所得結果摘錄如下:
一、供試植物對主要環境因子及斷水處理之反應
(一) 對不同溫度之反應
供試植物在不同溫度測定結果得知,三種供試植物天人菊、日日春及百慕達草在溫度35℃~40℃時其淨光合成率為30℃時之104.10%、106.87%及117.20%,顯示其皆能適應高溫下環境生長;於用水效率試驗結果得知供試植物在溫度20~40℃,植物之用水效率對溫度之反應性相當一致,皆隨溫度的增加而遞減。
(二) 供試植物對斷水處理之反應
單一植栽植物在斷水處理時淨光合成率、蒸散率、用水效率及氣孔導度皆隨土壤含水量的減少而下降;其土壤含水量與淨光合成率的關係式如下:
百慕達草 : y = 4.7392+0.2554x r = 0.75111**
天人菊 : y = 1.3609+0.3344x r = 0.80758**
日日春 : y = 0.4325+0.2392x r = 0.669587**
y = 淨光合成率(μ mol m-2s-1 ) x = 土壤含水量 (%)
式中可得知土壤含水量與植物淨光合率成正相關,此迴歸方程式可預估不同土壤含水量下植物的淨光合成率;在各盆栽混合栽植試驗結果顯示植栽混合比率之不同,在土壤含水量、葉片蒸散率、氣孔導度皆呈現差異,在不同比率混植中以百慕達草(75%)日日春(25%)、百慕達草(75%)天人菊(25%)、日日春(75%)天人菊(25%)等具有較高的土壤含水量。
二、植物生長分析
植物種類因生長基本特性之不同,在植物的相對生長率(指數生長期)會隨著天數的增加有所差異。
一般而言,植物混植時其相對生產量(R)值大於1時,則表示植物混植時植物間較無競爭作用和相剋作用適宜植物混植,試驗結果以百慕達草與日日春之混植較百慕達草與天人菊適宜,混植較差之混植植物為天人菊與日日春;植物混植時其比率不同,對植物間的相對生長率具有不同的影響,各供試植物間不同比率混合在相對生產量(R)值及相對侵略率(A)值、植物生長勢及植物體乾重等試驗參數值中以百慕達草75%日日春25%、百慕達草75%天人菊25%、日日春75%天人菊25%時的比率混植較佳。
植物種類間有競爭及相剋作用,因此不同混植比率會產生不同之結果影響,為避免不良之競爭作用產生,需選擇最佳之植栽組合混植,以達最佳的水土保育及視覺景觀功效。
The Bermuda grass(Cynodon dactylon.)、Blanket-flower(Gaillardia pulchella .) and Rose periwinkle(Catharanthus roseuss.) were selected as testing plants. Their responses to the environmental stresses were measured. The plant type and physiological variation in mixed planting were investigated in order to select the best combination of different plant. Results were summarized as follows:
1. Responses of testing plants to the basic environmental factors and water stress
a. Responses to different temperature
The leaf net photosynthetic rates of Blanket-flower, Rose periwinkle and Bermuda grass at 35℃~40℃ were 4.1%、6.87% and 17.20% respectively, which are higher than those at 30℃. It means that all the testing plants could adapt high temperature environment. The water-use efficiency of three testing plants was decreased as the temperature increased within 20~40℃.
b. Responses to water stress
The leaf net photosynthetic rate(Pn), transpiration rate(Tr) and water-use efficiency(WUE) of individual plant were decreased as the soil moisture decreasing. The regression equations were shown as follows:
Bermuda grass : y = 4.7392+0.2554x r =0.75111**
Blanket-flower : y = 1.3609+0.3344x r =0.80758**
Rose periwinkle: y =0.4325+0.2392x r = 0.669587**
where
y : leaf net photosynthetic rate(μmolm-2s-1)
x: soil moisture (%)
The equation indicated that the correlation between soil moisture and Pn was significant. So it is possible to calculate the Pn of different soil moisture. The result of combination planting in pots shows that the soil moisture, Tr and leaf conduction are changed with combination rates. Bermuda grass(75%) mixed with Rose periwinkle(25%), Bermuda grass(75%) mixed with Blanket-flower (25%) and Rose periwinkle (75%) mixed with Blanket-flower (25%) have higher soil moisture than others .
2.Growth analysis of testing plants
The relative growth rates varied with time and the character of testing plants. In general, when the relative growth (R value) of combination was higher than 1, it means that this planting combination has no competition and allelopathy, and these plants are suitable for mixed planting. The result shows that the combination of Bermuda grass and Rose periwinkle was better than that of Bermuda grass and Blankeflower, and that of Blankeflower and Rose periwinkle was the worst. As the ratio of combination changed, the R vaule of testing plants changed. R and A value in different combination ratios shows that the combination ratios of Bermuda grass(75%)& Rose periwinkle(25%), Bermuda grass(75%)& Blanket-flower (25%), Rose periwinkle (75%)& Blanket-flower (25%) were better than others.
Because of the competition and allelopathy among plant species, the results of mixed planting varied as the ratios of combination changed. To avoid the competition, the best ratio of combination should be chosen for normal growth and best effects of greening and scenery.
中文摘要-----------------------------------------Ⅰ
英文摘要-----------------------------------------Ⅲ
表次---------------------------------------------Ⅴ
圖次---------------------------------------------Ⅵ
壹、 前言----------------------------------------1
貳、 前人研究------------------------------------3
一、 植生覆蓋對裸露地區之保護功能--------------3
二、 植物間之競爭及相剋作用之關係與利用研究----3
三、 植物生理反應之研究------------------------4
參、 試驗材料、項目與方法-----------------------10
一、 試驗材料-------------------------------10
(一) 植物材料-------------------------------10
(二) 土壤材料-------------------------------11
二、 試驗項目與分析方法-----------------------12
(一) 種子檢查試驗---------------------------12
1. 淨度分析------------------------------12
2. 重量測定-------------------------------12
3. 種子發芽率及發芽勢---------------------12
(二) 土壤理化性質分析-----------------------13
1. 土壤質地-------------------------------13
2. 土壤pH值------------------------------13
3. 電導度 --------------------------------13
4. 有機質測定----------------------------13
5. 有效磷------------------------13
6. 土壤微量元素含量測定-------------------13
(三) 供試植物對主要環境因子反應試驗----------14
1. 對不同溫度之反應----------------14
2. 淨光合率與氣孔導度之測定------------14
(四) 混植試驗---------------------------17
1. 盆栽混植試驗及斷水處理生理反應試驗----17
(1)氣孔導度之測定-----------------18
(2)植物生長分析-------------------20
2.野外混植試驗------------------------20
(1) 試區概述--------------------------20
(2) 植物生長分析-----------------------20
肆、 結果與討論---------------------------------22
一、供試植物種子材料檢查試驗----------------22
(一)淨度分析--------------------------23
(二)重量測定-----------------------------23
(三) 種子發芽率及發芽勢------------------23
二、植物對主要環境及斷水處理後生理反應--------23
(一)對溫度變化的反應---------------------23
(二)供試植物單植植栽對斷水處理的反應----29
(三)混合栽植植物對斷水處理的反應-------36
三、植物生長分析----------------------------53
伍、 結論---------------------------------------62
參考文獻-------------------------------------65
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