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研究生:林金鳳
研究生(外文):King-Fenq Lin
論文名稱:水浴對肉豬生長性能、血液性狀及豬隻健康之影響
論文名稱(外文):Effect of Water Bath on Growth Performance,Blood Traits and Health of Pigs.
指導教授:許振忠許振忠引用關係
指導教授(外文):Jenn-Chung Hsu, Ph.D.
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立中興大學
系所名稱:畜產學系
學門:農業科學學門
學類:畜牧學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:1999
畢業學年度:87
語文別:中文
論文頁數:79
中文關鍵詞:水浴生長性能血液性狀抗體力價放流水
外文關鍵詞:Water bathGrowth performanceBlood traitsAntibodyEffluent
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本試驗之目的為探討於涼季與熱季水浴對肉豬生長性能、血液性狀及豬隻健康之影響。
試驗一涼季(飼養期間自86年12月30日開始至87年3月5日結束) 使用肉豬80頭,依胎次、體重及性別逢機分為對照組與試驗組(水浴組),每一重複飼豬10頭,公母各半,每一處理重複四次,使成一完全逢機設計(Complete Randomized Design;C R D),試驗期間飼料及飲水均採任飼。水浴組於每一欄內加設水浴池供豬隻水浴,利用三段式廢水處理過之放流水,循環再利用供豬隻水浴,每隔7日更換池水一次,開始平均體重為59.72公斤,飼養至平均體重約為100公斤時結束,於試驗期間抽樣採血測定呼吸道及繁殖系統綜合症(Porcinc reproductive and respiratory syndrome;PRRS)及沙門氏桿菌(Salmonella)抗體力價和水浴前後水質總生菌數,並於試驗結束時每頭豬由頸靜脈採血,供測定葡萄糖、甲狀腺素、鈉、鉀與氯濃度,並測定豬隻背脂厚度及腰眼面積。
試驗二熱季(飼養期間自87年6月2日開始至87年9月22日結束),除利用地下水供豬隻水浴,開始平均體重為38.18公斤,與試驗一不同外,其他處理方式與測定項目與試驗一相同。
試驗結果顯示在生長性能方面,試驗一於涼季,豬隻平均隻日攝食量、隻日增重與背脂厚度,水浴組比對照組分別增加0.31公斤 (11.7%,P<0.06)、0.06公斤 (7.3%,P<0.05) 與0.12公分(P<0.05),飼料轉換率和腰眼面積則二個處理間無顯著差異(P>0.05)。試驗二處於熱緊迫之熱季,豬隻平均隻日飼料攝食量與隻日增重,水浴組比對照組分別增加0.25公斤(12.1%,P<0.05) 與0.06公斤(8.8%,P<0.05)。背脂厚度、飼料轉換率及腰眼面積則二處理間無顯著差異(P>0.05)。
綜合二個試驗涼季與熱季體重由60-100公斤豬隻相比較,平均隻日攝食量與隻日增重,水浴組比對照組分別增加0.33公斤(13.3%,P<0.01) 與0.06公斤(7.6%,P<0.01);對照組涼季比熱季分別增加3.2公斤(13.8%,P<0.05) 與0.07公斤(9.3%,P<0.05);水浴組涼季比熱季分別增加0.29公斤(10.9%,P>0.05) 與0.08公斤(9.9%,P<0.05),隻日飼料攝食量,水浴組於熱季較涼季多增加0.03公斤(3%);隻日增重涼季比熱季多增加0.01公斤(0.5%);熱季水浴組豬隻隻日飼料攝食量、隻日增重和涼季對照組相近,背脂厚度、飼料轉換率和腰眼面積季節間差異不顯著。季節與處理之間亦無交感作用。
血液性狀方面,於試驗結束時個別於頸靜脈採血分析,分析結果顯示不論涼季與熱季處理組間血液成分差異均不顯著(P>0.05),季節與處理之間亦無交感作用,至於葡萄糖、甲狀腺素、鈉及氯濃度,水浴組均有高於對照組之現象。季節方面葡萄糖及甲狀腺素之濃度於涼季明顯高於熱季,鈉、鉀及氯濃度於熱季則明顯高於涼季。
利用放流水供豬隻水浴,水浴後總生菌數和呼吸道及繁殖系統綜合症抗體力價均有提高現象,而沙門氏桿菌抗體力價並未提高,唯均不影響豬隻生長性能與健康。罹病與死亡方面,處理組間罹病情形相似,水浴組與對照組試驗期間總計死亡頭數各為3頭,經病體解剖判定為呼吸道及繁殖系統綜合症(PRRS),應與水浴無關。

The purpose of this experiment was to investigate the effect of water baths on growth performance, blood traits and health of pigs during cool and hot seasons.
The experimentalⅠ(cool season) was conducted from Dec. 30, 1997 to Mar. 5, 1998. Total of eighty pigs were randomly divided into two groups with four replicates according to parity, body weight and sex. One group received water bath and the other group did not. Ten pigs in each replicate received feed and water ad. libitum. The treated group (with water bath) was bathed with reused effluent from a three-step pig wastewater system, the effluent was changed once a week. Pigs were raised from 59.72kg to 100kg of body weight during this trial. Blood samples were collected for the diagnosis of virulent antibodies related to porcine reproductive, respiratory syndrome system and salmonella. Total plate count in the effluent was also tested before and after the experiment. Blood samples were collected from neck vein of pigs and were tested for the concentration of glucose, thyroxine, sodium, potassium and chlorine. Backfat thickness and loin-eye area of the pigs were also determined at the end of the experiment.
The experimental Ⅱ(hot season) was carried out from June 2, 1988 to Sept. 22, 1988. The experimental items were as same those in experiment Ⅰexcept an underground water bath was used and the initial body weight of the pigs was 38.18kg.
The results from experiment Ⅰ(cool season) indicated that the average daily feed intake, daily gain and backfat thickness of pigs treated with water bath increased 0.31kg (11.7%, P<0.06), 0.06kg (7.3%,P<0.05) 0.12cm (P<0.05) more than the control group. However, feed conversion ratio and loin-eye area showed not significant differences between the two treatment groups (P>0.05). The results from experimentⅡalso showed that the average daily feed intake and daily gain of pigs treated with water bath increased 0.25kg (12.1%, P<0.05) and 0.06kg (8.8%, P<0.05.), over the control group but backfat thickness, feed conversion ratio and loin-eye area showed not significant differences (P>0.05).
Comparison between cool and hot seasons for body weight raised from 60kg to 100kg was made. The results of treated group (water bath group) showed that average daily feed intake and daily gain of pigs increased 0.33kg (13.3%, P<0.01) and 0.06kg (7.6%, P<0.01) more than the control group. The control group in cool season increased 3.2kg (13.8%, P<0.05) and 0.07kg (9.3%, P<0.05) more than the same group in the hot season. The treated group in cool season increased 0.29kg (10.9%, P>0.05) and 0.08kg (9.9%, P<0.05) more than the same group in hot season. However, about the average daily feed intake of treated group in hot season increased 0.03kg (3%) over more than the same group in cool season. The daily gain of pigs in cool season group increased 0.01kg (0.5%) over more than the same group in hot season. The average daily feed intake and daily gain of pigs in hot season group (water bath) were similar to those in cool season (control). Each backfat thickness, feed conversion ratio, loin-eye area and seasons showed not significant difference, and there were no interaction between the seasons and treatments.
Blood compositions showed not significant difference between cool season and hot season groups (P>0.05), There were no interaction, but the concentrations of glucose, thyroxine, sodium, potassium, chlorine, either in cool season or hot season related water-bath groups were higher than the control groups. The concentration of glucose and thyroxine in cool season was significantly higher than those in hot season. Sodium, potassium, chlorine in hot season were significantly higher than those in cool season.
There were an increased phenomenon in total plate count tested from the water after water bath, This did not affect the health of these pigs.
PRRS virulent antibodies and salmonella were not promoted through reused effluent for the water bath. Infection and death were correllated in one respect between the treatment groups. Two pigs were removed into another pen and not fed continually in this experiment because these pigs were not easily treated due to trauma and abscess in experimentⅡ(water bath), Two heads of pigs were also removed into another pen because tail of trauma from being bitten by other pigs. Three head of pigs died during the whole experiment from each treatments. These deaths were not related to PRRS and the water bath which were conducted in isolation.

壹、 中文摘要---------------------------------------------------------------------- 1
貳、 前言------------------------------------------------------------------------------ 3
參、 文獻檢討---------------------------------------------------------------------- 4
一、 肉豬的適溫帶----------------------------------------------------------- 4
二、 高環境溫度對肉豬生理反應之影響----------------------- 4
(一) 體溫-------------------------------------------------------------------------- 4
(二) 呼吸數---------------------------------------------------------------------- 7
(三) 器官重量------------------------------------------------------------------ 7
(四) 血液性狀------------------------------------------------------------------ 9
1.葡萄糖---------------------------------------------------------------------- 9
2. pH值------------------------------------------------------------------------- 9
3.鈉、鉀、氯------------------------------------------------------------- 10
4.甲狀腺素----------------------------------------------------------------- 11
5.腎上腺素----------------------------------------------------------------- 12
三、高環境溫度對肉豬生長性能及屠體性狀之影響--- 14
(一) 生長性能------------------------------------------------------------------- 14
1.攝食量---------------------------------------------------------------------- 14
2.隻日增重------------------------------------------------------------------ 16
3.飼料轉換率-------------------------------------------------------------- 16
(二) 屠體性狀------------------------------------------------------------------- 17
四、高環境溫度對肉豬能量和蛋白質需求之影響------- 18
(一) 能量-------------------------------------------------------------------------- 18
(二) 蛋白質---------------------------------------------------------------------- 18
五、高環境溫度對肉豬外觀行為之影響- --------------------- 19
六、高環境溫度對肉豬健康之影響------------------------------- 19
七、利用水改善豬熱緊迫之方法----------------------------------- 20
(一) 淋浴----------------------------------- -------------------------------------- 20
(二) 水浴-------------------------------------------------------------------------- 20
八、放流水對豬隻健康之影響---------------------------------------- 22
(一) 寄生蟲及原蟲----------------------------------------------------------- 22
(二) 病原性細菌及病毒--------------------------------------------------- 22
肆、材料與方法------------------------------------------------------------------ 24
一、試驗動物------------------------------------------------------------------- 24
(一) 來源-------------------------------------------------------------------------- 24
(二) 預防注射------------------------------------------------------------------ 24
二、試驗設計及飼養管理----------------------------------------------- 24
(一) 試驗設計----------------------------------------------------------------- 24
1. 試驗一涼季------------------------------------------------------------ 24
2. 試驗二熱季------------------------------------------------------------ 25
(二) 飼養管理----------------------------------------------------------------- 25
三、飼料製備------------------------------------------------------------------- 25
四、畜舍位置構造及面積----------------------------------------------- 29
五、測定項目及方法------------------------------------------------------- 29
(一) 生長性能----------------------------------------------------------------- 29
(二) 背脂厚度及腰眼面積--------------------------------------------- 29
(三) 血液性狀----------------------------------------------------------------- 32
1.血液採集---------------------------------------------------------------- 32
2.葡萄糖濃度------------------------------------------------------------ 32
3.甲狀腺素濃度-------------------------------------------------------- 32
4.鈉、鉀、氯濃度---------------------------------------------------- 33
(四) 抗體力價測定---------------------------------------------------------- 33
(五) 生菌數測定-------------------------------------------------------------- 33
(六) 疾病觀查------------------------------------------------------------------ 33
六、統計分析------------------------------------------------------------------ 34
伍、結果與討論----------------------------------------------------------------- 35
一、試驗一、涼季水浴對肉豬生長性
能、血液性狀及豬隻健康之影響-------------------------- 35
(一) 生長性能----------------------------------------------------------------- 35
(二) 血液性狀----------------------------------------------------------------- 37
(三) 抗體力價----------------------------------------------------------------- 39
1.呼吸道及繁殖系統綜合症------------------------------------ 39
2.沙門氏桿菌抗體力價------------------------------------------- 39
(四) 罹病及死亡率--------------------------------------------------------- 42
二、試驗二、熱季水浴對肉豬生長性
能、血液性狀及豬隻健康之影響-------------------------- 44
(一) 生長性能---------------------------------------------------------------- 44
(二) 血液性狀---------------------------------------------------------------- 46
(三) 罹病及死亡率-------------------------------------------------------- 46
三、涼季與熱季之比較--------------------------------------------------- 49
(一) 生長性能---------------------------------------------------------------- 49
1.攝食量------------------------------------------------------------------- 49
2.隻日增重--------------------------------------------------------------- 52
3.飼料轉換率----------------------------------------------------------- 53
4.背脂厚度--------------------------------------------------------------- 53
5.腰眼面積--------------------------------------------------------------- 55
(二) 血液性狀---------------------------------------------------------------- 55
1.葡萄糖------------------------------------------------------------------- 55
2.甲狀腺素--------------------------------------------------------------- 57
3.鈉、鉀、氯----------------------------------------------------------- 57
(三) 罹病及死亡率-------------------------------------------------------- 58
陸、結論---------------------------------------------------------------------------- 60
柒、參考文獻-------------------------------------------------------------------- 62
捌、附表---------------------------------------------------------------------------- 74
玖、英文摘要-------------------------------------------------------------------- 77

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