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研究生:曾聖智
論文名稱:岩石材料之音射特性及音射源定位研究
指導教授:李德河李德河引用關係
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立成功大學
系所名稱:土木工程學系
學門:工程學門
學類:土木工程學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:1999
畢業學年度:87
語文別:中文
論文頁數:100
中文關鍵詞:音射音射源音射定位
外文關鍵詞:acoustic emission
相關次數:
  • 被引用被引用:13
  • 點閱點閱:265
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岩石材料在形成的過程中其內部已有裂紋及孔隙的生成,而當岩石受到外力的作用時其內部的微裂隙則會有閉合、成長及連結的現象,並且伴隨著能量的釋放而產生音射訊號,因此材料音射的特性與裂隙的發展情形有著密切的關係。同時岩石在受壓的過程中,荷重的加載速率不僅會改變岩石的抗壓強度亦會改變其破壞行為。因此本文為探討岩石的破壞基本原理於是進行岩石材料音射特性之研究,所用岩石材料為木山層砂岩、花蓮大理岩及烏山層砂岩,所進行之試驗為單軸壓縮試驗,荷重的加載型式分為應力及應變控制,每種型式分別以四種不同的速率施壓,再藉由材料音射的發生型態以了解岩石在受壓的過程中裂隙的成長情形以及破壞的機制。另外,本文亦利用音射多頻道量測系統進行岩石材料中音射源定位的研究。
研究中發現,岩石的音射發生型態會因加載速率的不同而有所改變,隨著加載速率的增快,大理岩的音射發生型態會由Mogi 不穩定型轉變為密集不穩定型(Dense Unstable Type)(穩定斷裂"不穩定斷裂);烏山層砂岩則由Mogi不穩定型轉變為Mogi型;然而木山層砂岩的音射發生型態則較不受到速率效應的影響。在試驗中亦發現,岩石在裂隙閉合段時所發出的音射為中低振幅的訊號(40~60dB),但仍以低振幅的訊號為主;在彈性變形段時主要是發出低振幅的音射訊號,而在穩定或不穩定斷裂的階段時,音射訊號的振幅分布廣泛,意謂著大小不同的裂紋同時在生成及延伸,但愈到接近破壞時高振幅的音射訊號則會愈多。
此外,在木山層砂岩的圓柱試體上安裝六個不同位置的音射感應器,並以筆芯折斷法為激發源,再將獲得的音射資料利用數值方法來求取非線性方程組的解,即為激發源的座標,而所得到的結果皆能在控制的精度內。
摘要 I
誌謝II
目錄III
圖目錄VI
表目錄X
照片目錄XI
第一章 緒論
1-1研究動機1
1-2研究內容1
第二章 音射概論
2-1 音射簡介3
2-2 音射源的發生機制3
2-3 音射檢測技術與其他非破壞性檢測法的比較4
2-4 音射訊號的參數與波形5
2-4-1 音射訊號的參數5
2-4-2 音射訊號波形7
2-5 音射訊號特性分析7
2-5-1 音射計數(Ring Down Count)與音射發生率(Count Rate)8
2-5-2 振幅8
2-5-3 頻率域分析8
2-6 背景噪音的濾除11
2-6-1 頻率濾波法11
2-6-2 低限值濾波法12
2-6-3 空間濾波法12
2-6-4 壓平面噪音的濾除12
2-6-5 音射訊號中時間參數的設定13
2-7 音射源定位理論14
2-7-1 區域定位法14
2-7-2 到達時間差定法15
2-7-3 三軸霍德古拉姆法(tri-axial hodogram method)19
第三章 文獻回顧
3-1 音射在岩石力學上的研究21
3-2 加載速率對於岩石材料的影響28
3-3 音射源定位研究32
第四章 試驗材料、儀器及試驗步驟
4-1 試驗材料38
4-1-1 試樣取得38
4-1-2 X-ray 全岩粉末繞射分析39
4-1-3 偏光顯微鏡之的觀察結果41
4-1-4 試體的製作43
4-2 試驗儀器43
4-2-1 MTS材料試驗系統44
4-2-2 超音波量測系統44
4-2-3 音射訊號量測系統45
4-3 試驗步驟46
4-3-1 單軸壓縮試驗46
4-3-2 音射源定位47
第五章 試驗成果與討論
5-1 單軸壓縮試驗48
5-1-1 加載速率對於岩石強度的影響49
5-1-2 大理岩之音射特性51
5-1-3 烏山層砂岩之音射特性63
5-1-4 木山層之音射特性75
5-2 音射源之定位研究86
5-2-1 音射源定位分析方法86
5-2-2 波速( P波)的測定87
5-2-3 人工激發源之定位測試成果88
第六章 結論與建議
6-1 結論93
6-2 建議94
參考文獻95
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