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研究生:黃超群
研究生(外文):Chao-Chyun Huang
論文名稱:以無電鍍鎳/電鍍鎳為隆點底層金屬之銲錫隆點製作及其性質分析
論文名稱(外文):The Manufacturing and Properties of Solder Bump with Electroless Ni/Electroplated Ni as the Under Bump Metallurgy
指導教授:林光隆
指導教授(外文):Kwang-Lung Lin
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立成功大學
系所名稱:材料科學及工程學系
學門:工程學門
學類:材料工程學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:1999
畢業學年度:87
語文別:中文
論文頁數:109
中文關鍵詞:無電鍍鎳電鍍鎳銲錫隆點
外文關鍵詞:Electroless NiElectroplated NiSolder bump
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本論文旨在研究鋁電極上以無電鍍鎳及電鍍鎳為隆點底層金屬之銲錫隆點製作,及隆點性質分析。實驗以濺鍍方法在四吋晶片上沈積鋁膜作為導電層,利用微影製程製作隆點圖形,而後在其上分別製作以無電鍍鎳或電鍍鎳為隆點底層金屬之銲錫隆點,觀察製程中隆點剪力強度的變化情形,並分析在235℃, 30秒重流及150℃,1000小時熱處理時,界面的元素反應現象及兩隆點底層金屬擴散障礙效果的差異。實驗結果顯示,電鍍鎳鍍層隆點之剪力強度會隨隆點高度增加而降低,且對同一高度之無電鍍鎳及電鍍鎳鍍層隆點,無電鍍鎳鍍層隆點有較高的剪力強度。經重流後之銲錫隆點剪力測試破斷面均發生於鋁/矽界面,其平均剪力強度為16.6~18.8 g,且經過200次熱循環後,剪力強度降至約8 g。以無電鍍鎳或電鍍鎳為隆點底層金屬之銲錫隆點重流時形成之介金屬化合物均為Ni3Sn4、Ni3Sn2。厚度3.2μm之無電鍍鎳及厚度5.5μm之電鍍鎳鍍層可以防止235℃, 30秒重流及150℃,1000小時熱處理下,鋁、錫相互擴散的現象。

This research aims at the fabrication and properties of solder bump with electroless nickel and electroplated nickel as the under bump metallurgy on Al electrode. In this experiment, Al layer as the conductive layer was deposited with sputtering on 4 inch wafer followed by lithography to form the desired bump pattern. Solder bump was then produced on the patterned specimen with electroless nickel or electroplated nickel as the under bump metallurgy. The experiment investigated the shear strength variation of bump with respect to process parameters and analyzed the reaction at the interface. It also investigated the barrier behaviors of the two under bump metallurgy during 30 seconds reflow at 235℃ and heat treatment at 150℃ for 1000 hours. The results reveal that the shear strength of electroplated nickel bump decreases with bump height. For the same bump height, the electroless nickel bump has higher shear strength than the electroplated nickel bump. The solder bumps all fracture at Al/Si interface during shear test with an average shear strength of 16.6~18.8 g. After 200 thermal cycles between -40℃ and 150℃, the shear strength of solder bump decreases to about 8 g. The intermetallic compounds formed during reflow for solder bumps with electroless nickel or electroplated nickel as the under bump metallurgy are Ni3Sn4 and Ni3Sn2. Electroless nickel with a thickness of 3.2μm and electroplated nickel with a thickness of 5.5μm can inhibit the interdiffusion between Al and solder during reflow at 235℃ and heat tretment at 150℃ for 1000 hours.

中文摘要…………………………………………………………………Ⅰ
英文摘要…………………………………………………………………Ⅱ
總目錄……………………………………………………………………Ⅲ
表目錄……………………………………………………………………Ⅶ
圖目錄……………………………………………………………………Ⅷ
第一章 簡介………………………………………………………………1
1-1前言…………………………………………………………….1
1-2薄膜沈積技術………………………………………………….5
1-3鋅置換………………………………………………………….8
1-4無電鍍鎳………………………………………………………13
1-4-1 無電鍍鎳原理…………………………………………13
1-4-2 優缺點…………………………………………………15
1-4-3 鍍層物理性質…………………………………………16
1-4-4 經鋅置換後析鍍無電鍍鎳之反應…………………...16
1-5銲錫技術-電鍍銲錫…………………………………………..16
1-6研究目的………………………………………………………18
第二章 實驗方法………………………………………………………..20
2-1 導電層金屬-鋁 的製作……………………………………...20
2-1-1 矽晶片前處理………………………………………...20
2-1-2 濺擊蝕刻……………………………………………...22
2-1-3 濺鍍鋁鍍層…………………………………………...22
2-2 微影製程……………………………………………………..22
2-3 鋅置換………………………………………………………..24
2-3-1 鋅置換溶液的選取…………………………………...24
2-3-2 鋅置換製程……...……………………………………24
2-4 擴散障礙層的析鍍…………………………………………..28
2-4-1 無電鍍鎳磷鍍層的析鍍……………………………...28
2-4-2 電鍍鎳的析鍍………………………………………...31
2-5 電鍍鉛錫合金………………………………………………..31
2-6 非隆點處金屬層的浸蝕……………………………………..31
2-7 重流…………………………………………………………..31
2-8 分析與測試…………………………………………………..36
2-8-1 擴散障礙層析鍍速率量測…………………………...36
2-8-2 擴散障礙層表面型態的觀察………………………...36
2-8-3 擴散障礙層的結晶結構分析………………………...36
2-8-4 各金屬鍍層片電阻量測……………………………...36
2-8-5 鍍層硬度量測………………………………………...39
2-8-6 鍍層附著性量測……………………………………...39
2-8-6-1 拉力強度量測………………………………....39
2-8-6-2 剪力強度測試………………………………....39
2-8-7 擴散障礙層功能測試………………………………...39
2-8-7-1 經過重流後之元素擴散……………………....39
2-8-7-2 經過長時間熱處理後之元素擴散…………....44
第三章 結果與討論……………………………………………………..45
3-1 UBM的製作及性質探討……………………………………..45
3-1-1 鋅置換與無電鍍鎳析鍍之關係……………………...45
3-1-1-1 不同次數鋅置換後之表面型態………………45
3-1-1-2 鋅置換次數對無電鍍鎳析鍍的影響…………45
3-1-1-3 濺鍍鋁晶片上鋅置換之情形…………………45
3-1-2 無電鍍鎳與電鍍鎳性質分析………………………...49
3-1-2-1 析鍍速率的比較……………………………....49
3-1-2-2 表面型態的差異……………………………....49
3-1-2-3 鍍層結晶結構的分析………………………....53
3-1-2-4 鍍層片電阻量測……………………………....53
3-1-2-5 鍍層硬度之比較……………………………....56
3-1-3無電鍍鎳與電鍍鎳附著性比較……………………....58
3-1-3-1 拉力強度量測………………………………....59
3-1-3-2 剪力強度(Shear Strength)量測………….…59
3-2 銲錫層的製作及性質分析…………………………………..64
3-2-1 電鍍鉛錫合金………………………………………….64
3-2-1-1 鍍層表面型態觀察……………………………64
3-2-1-2 鍍層之元素分析………………………………69
3-2-1-3 銲錫隆點高度量測……………………………69
3-2-1-4 隆點剪力強度量測…………………………....73
3-2-2 非隆點處金屬層的浸蝕(Etching)…………………77
3-3 重流…………………………………………………………..77
3-3-1 重流後隆點之外觀型態……………………………...77
3-3-1-1 重流時間之影響……………………………....77
3-3-1-2 重流溫度之影響……………………………....77
3-3-2 重流時之界面反應…………………………………...81
3-3-2-1 介金屬化合物的生成及元素分析…………....81
3-3-2-2 介金屬化合物的相鑑定……………………....81
3-3-3 重流時之元素擴散現象……………………………...83
3-3-3-1 不同厚度無電鍍鎳鍍層之擴散障礙效果…...83
3-3-3-2 不同厚度電鍍鎳鍍層之擴散障礙效果……...87
3-3-4 重流後銲錫隆點之剪力強度量測…………………..93
3-4 銲錫隆點可靠度(Reliability)測試……………………….93
3-4-1 長時間熱處理下之元素擴散情形…………………..93
3-4-1-1 不同厚度無電鍍鎳鍍層之擴散障礙效果…...97
3-4-1-2 不同厚度電鍍鎳鍍層之擴散障礙效果……...97
3-4-2 熱循環對隆點剪力強度之影響…………………….102
第四章 結論……………………………………………………………105
參考資料………………………………………………………………..106

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