(54.236.58.220) 您好!臺灣時間:2021/03/05 06:34
字體大小: 字級放大   字級縮小   預設字形  
回查詢結果

詳目顯示:::

我願授權國圖
: 
twitterline
研究生:李一平
研究生(外文):Lee Yi-Ping
論文名稱:鏈球菌致熱性外毒素A引起兔子之致熱作用及其作用位置
論文名稱(外文):Pyrogenicity of Streptococcal Pyrogenic Exotoxin A and Its Acting Site in Rabbits
指導教授:翁舷誌
指導教授(外文):Won Shen-Jeu
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立成功大學
系所名稱:微生物暨免疫學研究所
學門:生命科學學門
學類:微生物學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:1999
畢業學年度:87
語文別:中文
論文頁數:69
中文關鍵詞:鏈球菌致熱性外毒素A發燒血管脈叢終端器官細胞素前列腺素E2兔子
外文關鍵詞:Streptococcal pyrogenic exotoxin AFeverOrganum vasculosum laminae terminalisCytokineProstaglandin E2Rabbit
相關次數:
  • 被引用被引用:1
  • 點閱點閱:141
  • 評分評分:系統版面圖檔系統版面圖檔系統版面圖檔系統版面圖檔系統版面圖檔
  • 下載下載:0
  • 收藏至我的研究室書目清單書目收藏:1
化膿性鏈球菌 (Streptococcus pyrogenes) 是一種可以引起許多不同疾病的重要人類致病原。它們可以產生許多具有生物活性的毒素,包括:鏈球菌致熱性外毒素 (SPE) A、B、C、D、E、以及F。這些毒素因為可以對宿主的免疫系統產生廣泛的作用,所以被歸類為超級抗原 (superantigen)。SPE在鏈球菌性毒性休克症狀 (STSS) 的致病機轉上扮演了一個很重要的角色。在感染的初期,患者通常會產生高熱及多器官病害的病理徵狀,而導致患者的高死亡率。然而,SPEA的致熱作用及機轉至今仍然不清楚。本研究的目的是利用兔子的動物模式來探討由靜脈途徑或血管脈叢終端器官 (OVLT) 途徑施打SPEA後的致熱作用機轉。研究結果顯示:靜脈注射 (50-500 ng/kg) 或OVLT內注射 (0.2-5 ng/kg) 皆可引起兔子產生遲緩型、單峰、並有劑量相關性的發燒現象,而OVLT途徑僅需非常低的劑量即可引起和靜脈途徑相似的發燒。靜脈注射SPEA所引起的發燒現象可以被周邊事先給予cycloheximide (一種蛋白質合成酵素抑制劑)、dexamethasone (一種強效的抗發炎及免疫抑制劑)、indomethacin (一種環氧化酵素抑制劑),及OVLT途徑事先給予cycloheximide、dexamethasone、indomethacin所抑制。OVLT內注射SPEA所引起的發燒現象可以被周邊事先給予cycloheximide,及OVLT途徑事先給予dexamethasone、indomethacin所抑制。在靜脈注射SPEA後,隨著兔子體溫的變化,血清中的腫瘤壞死因子 (TNF) 及介白質 (IL) -2有增加的現象。將兔子的周邊血單核細胞和SPEA一起培養,也可以在上清液中偵測到TNF、IL-1、及IL-2的增加。綜上實驗結果顯示SPEA引起兔子發燒的機制可能因SPEA誘發兔子產生TNF及IL-2或其他因子。而兔子腦部OVLT地區的cyclooxygenase (COX) pathway可能與SPEA引起兔子之致熱作用有密切的關係。
The gram-positive bacterium Streptococcus pyrogenes is the most important human pathogen causing a variety of diseases. It produces several biological active toxins including streptococcal pyrogenic exotoxin (SPE) A, B, C, D, E and F which have been shown to belong to the superantigens because of their erudite effects on the immune system. SPE are involved in the pathogenesis of streptococcal toxic-shock syndrome (STSS) with a high mortality including high fever and multiorgan failure in the early stage of infection. However, the mechanism and the mode of pyrogenicity of SPEA remains unclear. The purpose of this study is to assess the febrile responses of rabbits through intravenous or intra-organum vasculosum laminae terminals (intra-OVLT) administration of SPEA. Intravenous (50-500 ng/kg) or intra-OVLT (0.2-5 ng/kg) administration of SPEA produced a delayed-onset, monophasic and dose-related fever in rabbit. Compared with the febrile responses induced by intravenous injection of SPEA, the OVLT route of injection required a much lower dose of SPEA to produce a similar fever. The fever induced by intravenous injection of SPEA in rabbits was significantly attenuated by pretreatment with both of intravenous injection of cycloheximide (a protein synthetase inhibitor) or dexamethasone (an effective anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressive agent), or intraperitoneal injection of indomethacin (a cyclo-oxygenase synthetase inhibitor) and intra-OVLT injection of cycloheximide, dexamethasone or indomethacin. The fever induced by intra-OVLT injection of SPEA in rabbits was significantly attenuated by pretreatment with both of intravenous injection of cycloheximide and intra-OVLT injection of dexamethasone or indomethacin. In parallel with colonic temperature change, the circulating levels of tumor necrosis factor (TNF) and interleukin (IL) -2 in rabbits after SPEA injection were slightly increased. In addition, the levels of TNF, IL-1 and IL-2 in the supernatants from SPEA-treated rabbit peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) were also increased. The present results suggest that the fever induced by SPEA may mediate the increase in the circulating levels of TNF and IL-2 or other factors, and cyclooxygenase (COX) pathway in the OVLT may mediate the SPEA-induced febrile response in rabbits.
目錄
簽署人須知
授權書
誌謝
中文摘要
英文摘要
縮寫指引
表目錄
圖目錄
第一章 緒論
第二章 材料與方法
第三章 結果
第四章 討論
參考文獻
表附錄
圖附錄
自述
Abe, J., J. Forrester, T. Nakahara, J. A. Lafferty, B. L. Kotzin, and D. Y. Leung. 1991. Selective stimulation of human T cell with streptococcal erythrogenic toxins A and B. J. Immunol. 146: 3747-3750.
Abul, H., J. Davidson, A. S. Milton, and D. Rotondo. 1987. Dexamethasone pre-treatment is antipyretic toward polyinosinic: polycytidylic acid, lipopolysaccharide and interleukin 1/endogenous pyrogen. Naunyn-Schmiedeberg*s Arch Pharmacol. 335: 305-309.
Akerblom, I. E., E. P. Slater, M. Beato, J. D. Baxter, and P. L. Mellon. 1988. Negative regulation by glucocorticoids through interference with a cAMP responsive enhancer. Science 241: 350-353.
Alouf, J. E., H. Knoll, and W. Kohler. 1991. The family of mitogenic, shock-inducing and superantigen toxins from staphylococci and streptococci. 367-414.
Andersson, B., C. C. Gale, B. Hokfelt, and B. Larsson.1965. Acute and chronic effects of preoptic lesions. Acta Physiol. Scand. 65: 580-646.
Andersson, J., S. Nagy, L. Bjojrk, J. Abrams, S. Holm, and U. Andersson. 1992. Bacterial toxin induced cytokine production studies at the single-cell level. Immunol. Rev. 127: 69-96.
Atkins, E., and W. C. Huang. 1958. Studies on the pathogenesis of fever with influenza viruses I. The appearance of an endogenous pyrogen in the blood following intravenous injection of virus. J. Exp. Med. 107: 383-402.
Atkins, E., and L. R. Freedman. 1963. Studies in staphylococcal fever. Yale J. Biol. Med. 35: 451-471.
Atkins, M. B., J. A. Gould, and M. Allregretta. 1986. Phase I evaluation of recombinant interleukin-2 in patients with advanced malignant disease. J. Clin. Oncol. 4: 1380-1391.
Auphan, N., J. A. DiDonato, C. Rosette, A. Helmberg, M. Karin. 1995. Immunosuppression by glucocorticoids: inhibition of NF-kB activity through induction of IkB synthesis. Science 270: 286-290.
Bachwich, P. R., S. W. Chensue, J. W. Larrick, and S. L. Kunkel. 1986. Tumor necrosis factor stimulates interleukin-1 and prostaglandin E2 production in resting macrophages. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 136: 94-101.
Baker, P. E., S. Gillis, and K. A. Smith. 1979. Monoclonal cytolytic T-cell lines. J. Exp. Med. 149: 273-278.
Barsumian, E. L., C. M. Cunningham, P. M. Schlievert, and D. W. Watson. 1978. Heterogeneity of group A streptococcal pyrogenic exotoxin type B. Infect. Immun. 20: 512-518.
Beeson, P. B. 1948. Temperature elevaturing effect of a substance obtained from polymorphonuclear leukocytes. J. Clin. Invest. 27: 548-552.
Biliau, A., J. W. Heine, J. Van Damme, H. Heremans, and P. De Somer. 1980. Tolerability of pure fibroblast interferon in man. Ann. NY. Acad. Sci. 350: 374-375.
Biliau, A. 1981. Pharmacokinetic and pharmacological aspects of interferon therapy in man. Acta Microbiol. Acad. Sci. Hung. 28: 257-262.
Blackwell, G. J., C. Rosa, M. Di Rosa, R. J. Flower, C. S. J. Langham, L. Parente, P. Persico, N. C. Russell-Smith, and D. Stone. 1982. Glucocorticoids induce the formation and release of anti-inflammatory and anti-phospholipase proteins into the peritoneal cavity of the rat. Br. J. Pharmacol. 76: 185-194.
Blatteis, C. M., L. S. Bealer, W. S. Hunter, Q. J. Lianos, R. A. Ahokas, and T. A. Mashburn. 1983. Supression of fever after lession of the anteroventral third ventricle in guinea pigs. Brain Res. Bull. 11: 519-526.
Blatteis, C. M., and M. Banet. 1986. Autonomic thermoregulation after separation of the preoptic area from the hypothalamus in rats. Pflugers Arch. 406: 480-484.
Blatteis, C. M. 1988. Neural mechanisms in the pyrogenic and acute-phase response to interleukin-1. Int. J. Neurosci. 38: 223-232.
Blatteis, C. M., C. A. Dinarello, M. Shibata, J. Llanos-Q, N. Quan, and D. Busija. 1989. Dose circulating interleukin-1 enter the brain?, p. 385-390. In J. Mercer(ed.), Thermal physiolgy. Elsevire, Amsterdam.
Bocci, V. 1980. Possible causes of fever after interferon administration. Biomedicine (Paris) 32: 159-162.
Bohach, G. A., D. J. Fast, R. D. Nelson, and P. M. Schlievert. 1990. Staphylococcal and streptococcal pyrogenic toxins involved in toxin shock syndrome and related illnesses. Crit. Rev. Microbiol. 17: 251-272.
Breder, C. D., C. A. Dinarello, and C. B. Saper. 1988. Interleukin-1 immunoreactive innervation of the human hypothalamus. Science 240: 321-324.
Brizzee, K. R. 1955. A comparison of the cell structure of the area postrema, supraoptic crest and intracolumnar tubercle, with notes on the neurohypophysis and pineal body in the cat. J. Comp. Neurol. 100: 699-715.
Bunning, R. A. D., R. G. G. Russell, and J. Van Damme. 1990. Independent induction of interleukin-6 and prostaglandin E2 by interleukin-1 in human articular chondrocytes. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 166: 1163-1170.
Camacho, A., and M. I. Phillips. 1981. Horseradish peroxidase study in rat of the neural connections of the organum vasculosum of the laminae terminalis. Neurosci. Lett. 25: 201-204.
Cannon, J. G., and C. A. Dinarello. 1985. Increased plasma interleukin-1 activity in women after ovulation. Science 227: 1247-1249.
Clark, B. D., K. L. Collins, M. S. Gandy, A. C. Webb, and P. E. Auron. 1986. Genomic sequence for human prointerleukin 1 bata: Possible evolution from a reverse transcribed prointerleukin 1 alpha gene. Nucleic. Acids. Res. 14: 7897-7914.
Clark, W. G., and H. R. Cumby. 1975. The antipyretic effect of indomethacin. J. Physiol. (Lond.) 248:625-638.
Cleary, P. P., E. L. Kaplan, J. P. Handley, A. Wlazlo, M. H. Kim, A. R. Hauser, and P. M. Schlievert. 1992. Colonal basis for resurgence of serious Streptococcus pyrogenes disease in the 1980s. Lancet. 339: 518-521.
Coceani, F., J. Bishai, C. A. Dinarello, and F. A. Fitzpatrick. 1982. Prostaglandin E2 and thromboxane B2 in cerebrospinal fluid of afebrile and febrile cat. Am. J. Physiol. 224: R785-R793.
Coceani, F., J. Lees, and J. Bishai. 1988. Further evidence implicating prostaglandin E2 in the genesis of pyrogen fever. Am. J. Physiol. 254: R463-R469.
Cockerill III, F. R., K. L. MacDonald, and R. L. Thompson. 1997. Outbreak of the invasive group A streptococcal disease associated with high carriage rates of the invasion clone among school-aged children. JAMA. 277: 38-43.
Colman, G., A. Tanna, A. Efstratiou, and E. T. Gaworzewska. 1993. The serotypes of Streptococcus pyrogenes present in Britain during 1980-1990 and teir association with disease. J. Med. Microbiol. 39: 165-178.
Cone, L. A., D. R. Woodard, P. M. Schlievert, and G. S. Tomory. 1987. Clinical and bacteriological observation of a toxic shock-like syndrome due to Streptococcus pyrogenes. 1987. N. Engl. J. Med. 317: 146-149.
Cranston, W. I., N. J. Dawson, and Y. Townsend. 1978. Contrasting actions of cycloheximide on fever caused by arachidonic acid and by pyrogen. J. Physiol. (Lond.) 285: 35P.
Cranston, W. I., R. F. Hellon, and Y. Townsend. 1980. Suppression of fever in rabbits by a protein synthesis inhibitor, anisomycin. J. Physiol. (Lond.) 305: 337-344.
Crawford, I. L., J. I. Kennedy, J. M. Lipton, and S. R. Ojeda. 1979. Effect of central adminstration of probenicid on fever produced by leukocytic pyrogen and PGE2 in the rabbits. J. Physiol. 287: 519-533.
Cunningham, C. M., E. L. Barsumian, and D. W. Watson. 1976. Further purification of group A streptococcal pyrogenic exotoxin and characterization of the purified toxin. Infect. Immun. 14: 767-775.
Davidson, J., A. S. Milton, and D. Rotondo. 1990. A study of the pyrogenic actions of interleukin-1a and interleukin-1b: interactions with a steroidal and a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agent. Br. J. Pharmacol. 100: 542-546.
Davies, H. D., A. McGeer, B. Schwartz, K. Green, D. Cann, A. E. Simor, and D. E. Low. 1996. Invasive group A streptococcal infections in Ontario, Canada. Ontario group A streptococcal study group. N. Engl. J. Med. 335: 547-554.
Denny, F. W. 1982. A 45-year prespective on the streptococcal and rheumatic fever: the edward H. Kass lecture in infectious disease history. Clin. Infect. Dis. 19: 1110-1122.
DeWitt, D. L., and W. L. Smith. 1988. Primary structure of prostaglandin G/H synthase from sheep vesicular gland determined from the complementary DNA . Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 85: 1412-1416.
DeWitt, D. L. 1991. Prostaglandin endoperoxide synthase: regulation of enzyme expression. Biochim. Biophys. Acta 1083: 121-134.
Dinarello, C. A., H. A. Bernheim, G. W. Duff, H. V. Le, T. L. Nagabhushan, N. C. Hamilton, and F. Coceani. 1984. Mechanisms of fever induced by recombinant human interferon. J. Clin. Invest. 74: 906-913.
Dinarello, C. A., J. G. Cannon, J. W. Mier, H. A. Bernheim, G. Lopreste, D. L. Lynn, R. N. Love, A. C. Webb, P. E. Auron, R. C. Reuben, A. Rich, S. M. Wollf, and S. D. Puteny. 1986a. Mutiple biological activities of human recombinant interleukin-1. J. Clin. Invest. 77: 1734-1739.
Dinarello, C. A., J. G. Cannon, and S. M. Wolff. 1986b. Tumor necrosis factor (cachectin) is an endogenous pyrogen and induces production of interleukin 1. J. Exp. Med. 163: 1433-1450.
Dinarello, C. A., J. G. Cannon, and S. M. Wolff. 1988. New concepts on the pathogenesis of fever. Rev. Infect. Dis. 10: 168-189.
Dinarello, C. A. 1989. Interleukin-1 and its biologically related cytokins. Adv. Immunol. 44: 153-205.
Feldberg, W., and P. N. Saxena. 1971. Fever produced by prostaglandin E1. J. Physiol. (Lond.) 217: 547-556.
Fletcher, B. S., D. A. Kujubu, D. M. Perrin, H. R. Herschman. 1992. Structure of the mitogen-inducible TIS10 gene and demonstration that the TIS10-encoded protein is a functional proataglandin G/H synthase. J. Biol. Chem. 267: 4338-4344.
Flower, R. J. 1986. The mediators of steroid action. Nature 320: 20.
Fontana, A., E. Weber, and J. M. Dayer. 1984. Synthesis of interleukin 1/ endogenous pyrogen in the brain of endotoxin-treated mice: A step in fever reduction? J. Immunol. 133: 1696-1698.
Furutani, Y., M. Notake, and T. Fukui. 1986. Complete nucleotide sequence of the gene for human interleukin 1 alpha. Nucleic. Acids. Res. 14: 3167-3179.
Gauldie, J., C. Richards, D. Harnish, P. Lansdorp, and H. Baumann. 1987. Interferon b2/ B-cell stimulatory factor type 2 shares identity with monocyte-derived hepatocyte-stimulating factor and regulates the major acute phase protein response in liver cells. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA. 84: 7251-7256.
Gillis, S., and S. B. Mizel. 1981. T-cell lymphoma model for the analysis of interleukin-1-mediated T cell activation. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 78: 1133-1137.
Giulian, D., T. J. Baker, L. N. Shih, and L. B. Lachman. 1986. Interleukin 1 of the central nervoussystem is produced by ameboid microgilia. J. Exp. Med. 164: 594-604.
Gross, P. M., N. M. Sposito, S. E. Pettersen, and J. D. Fenstermacher. 1986. Differences in function and structure of the capillary endothelium in gray matter, white matter and a circumventricular organ of the rat brain. Blood Vessels 23: 261-270.
Gross, P. M., R. G. Blasberg, J. D. Fenstermacher, and C. S. Patlak. 1987. The microcirculation of rat circumventricular organs and pituitary gland. Brain Res. Bull. 18: 73-85.
Guyre, P. M., M. T. Girard, P. M. Morganelli, and P. D. Manginiello. 1988. Glucocorticoid effects on the production and actions of immune cytokines. J. Steroid Biochem. 30: 89-93.
Hackett, S. P., and D. L. Stevens. 1992. Streptococcae toxic shock syndrome: synthesis of tumor necrosis factor and interleukin-1 by monocytes stimulated with pyrogenic exotoxin A and streptolysin. O. J. Infect. Dis. 165: 879-885.
Hashimoto, M., T. Bando, M. Iriki, and K. Hashimoto. 1988. Effect of indomethacin on febrile response to recombinant human interleukin-1a in rabbit. Am. J. Physiol. 255: R527-R533.
Hashimoto, M. 1991. Characterization and mechanism of fever induction by interleukin- beta. Pflugers Arch. Eur. J. Immunol. 419: 616-621.
Hashimoto, M., T. Ueno, and M. Iriki. 1994. What roles dose the organum vasculosum laminae terminalis play in fever in rabbits? Pflugers Arch. Eur. J. Physiol. 429: 50-57.
Hauser, A. R., D. L. Stevens, E. L. Kaplan, and P. M. Schlievert. 1991. Molecular analysis of pyrogenic exotoxins from Streptococcus pyrogenes isolates associated with toxic shock-like syndrome. J. Clin. Microbiol. 29: 1562-1567.
Hellon, R. F., and Y. Townsed. 1983. Mechanisms of fever. Pharmacol. Therap. 19:211-244.
Hemler, M., W. E. M. Lands, W. L. Smith. 1976. Purification of the cyclooxygenase that forms prostaglandins. J. Biol. Chem. 251: 5575-5579.
Hoge, C. W., B. Schwartz, D. F. Talkington, R. F. Breiman, E. M. MacNeill, and S. J. Englender. 1993. The changing epidemiology of invasive group A streptococcal infections and the emergence of streptococcal toxic shock-like syndrome. A retrospective population- based study. JAMA 269: 384-389.
Holm, S. E., A. Norrby, A. M. Bergholm, and M. Norgren. 1992. Aspects of pathogenesis of serious group A streptococcal infections in Sweden. J. Infect. Dis. 166: 31-37.
Huang, W. T., M. T. Lin, and S. J. Won. 1997a. Staphylococcal enterotoxin A-induced fever is associated with increased circulating levels of cytokines in rabbits. Infect. Immun. 65: 2656-2662.
Huang, W. T., M. T. Lin, and S. J. Won. 1997b. Mechanisms and sites of pyrogenic action exerted by staphylococcal enterotoxin A in rabbits. Neurosci. Lett. 236: 53-56.
Johnson, D. M., D. L. Stevens, and E. L. Kaplam. 1992. Epidemiological analysis of group A streptococcal serotypes associated with severe systemic infections, rheumatic fever, or uncomplicated pharyngitis. J. Infect. Dis. 166: 374-382.
Kluger, M. J. 1991. Fever: role of pyrogen and cryogens. Physiol. Rev. 71: 93-127.Kluger, M. J., B. O,Reilly. T. R. Shope,and A. J. Vander. 1987. Further evidence that stress hyperthermia is a fever. Physiol. Behav. 39: 763-766.
Kobayashi, G., and L. Friedman. 1964. Characterization of the pyrogenicity of Candida albicans, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and Cryptococcus neoformans. J. Bacteriol. 88: 795-801.
Kobayashi, Y., T. Yoshikawa, and N. Watanabe. 1992. Tumor cytostasis mediated by LPS- or PSK-activated human plastic-adherent peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Cell. Immunol. 144: 358-366.
Krisch, B., H. Leonhardt, and W. Buchheim. 1978. The functional and structural border between the CSF- and blood-milieu in the circumventricular organs (organum vasculosum laminae terminalis, subfronical organ, area postrema) of the rat. Cell Tissue Res. 195: 485-497.
LeMay, L. G., A. J. Vander, and M. J. Kluger. 1990. The effects of psychological stress on plasma interleukin-6 activity in the rat. Physiol. Behav. 47: 957-961.
Libby, P., J. M. Ordovas, K. R. Auger, A. H. Robbins, L. K. Birinyi, and C. A. Dinarello. 1986. Endotoxin and tumor necrosis factor induce interleukin-1 gene expression in adult human vascular endothelial cells. Am. J. Pathol. 124: 179-185.
Lin, J. H., and M. T. Lin. 1996a. Nitric oxide synthase-cyclooxygenase pathways in organum vasculosum laminae terminalis may mediate pyrogenic fever in rabbits.Br. J. Pharmacol. 118: 179-185.
Lin, J. H. , and M. T. Lin. 1996b. Inhibition of nitric oxide synthase or cyclo-oxygenase pathways in organum vasculosum laminae terminalis attenuates interleukin-1 b fever in rabbits. Neurosci. Lett. 208: 155-158.
Lipton, J. M., and G. P. Trzcinka. 1976. Persistence of febrile response to pyrogen after PO/AH lesion in squirrel monkeys. Am. J. Physiol. 231: 1638-1648.
Lotze, M. T., Y. L. Matory, and A. A. Rayner. 1986. Clinical effects and toxicity of interleukin-2 in patients with cancer. Cancer 58: 2764-2772.
Luheshi, G, and N. Rothwell. 1996. Cytokines and fever. Int. Arch. Allergy Immunol. 109: 301-307.
Martin, P. R., and E. A. Hoiby. 1990. Streptococcal serogroup A epidemic in Norway 1987-1988. Scand. J. Infect. Dis. 22: 421-429.
Matsuda, T., T. Hori, and T. Nakashima. 1992. Thermal and PGE2 sensitivity of the organum vasculosum laminae terminalis region and preoptic area in rat brain slices. J. Physiol. (Lond.) 454: 197-212.
Matsumura, K., Y. Watanabe, H. Onoe, Y. Watanabe, and O. Hayaishi. 1990. High density of prostaglandin E2 binding sites in anterior wall of the 3 rd ventricle: a possible site of its hyperthermic action. Brain Res. 533: 147-151.
Mckinley, M. J., A. M. Allen, S. Y. Chai, D, K. Hards, F. A. O. Mendelsohn, and B. J. Oldfield. 1989. The laminae terminalis and its neural connections : neural circuity involved in the angiotensin action and fluid electrolyte homeostasis. Acta. Physiol. Scand. 583:113-118.
Meade, E.A., W. L. Smith, D. L. DeWitt. 1993. Differential inhibition of prostaglandin endoperoxide synthase (cyclooxygenase) isozymes by aspirin and other non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. J. Biol. Chem. 268: 6610-6614.
Merlie, J.P., D. Fagan, J. Mudd, and P. Needleman. 1988. Isolation and characterization of complementary DNA for sheep seminal prostaglandin endoperoxide synthase (cyclooxygenase). J. Biol. Chem. 263: 3550-3553.
Mier, J. W., G. Vachino, J. W. M. Van Der Meer, R. P. Numerof, S. Adams, J. G. Cannon, H. A. Bernheim, M. B. Atkin, D. R. Parkinson, and C. A. Dinarello. 1988. Induction of circulating tumor necrosis factor (TNF-a) as the mechanism for the febrile response to interleukin-2 (IL-2) in cancer patients. J. Clin. Immunol. 8: 426-436.
Milton, A. S., and S. Wendlandt. 1970. A possible role for prostanglandin E1 as a modulator for temperature regulation in the central nervous system of the cat (abst.). J. Physiol. (Lond.) 207: 76P-77P.
Milton, A. S., and S. Wendlandt. 1971. Effects on body temperature of prostaglandin of the A, E and F series on injection into the third ventricle of unanaesthetized cats and rabbits. J. Physiol. (Lond.) 218: 325-336.
Miossec, P., and M. Ziff. 1986. Immune interferon enhances the production of interleukin 1 by human endothelial cells stimulated with lipopolysaccharide. J. Immunol. 137: 2848-2852.
Moltz, H. 1993. Fever: causes and consequences. Neurosci. and Biobehav. Rev. 17: 237-269.
Moore, R. Y. 1977. Organum vasculosum lamina terminalis: innervation by serotonin neurons of the midbrain raphe. Neurosci. Lett. 5: 297-302.
Morimoto, A., N. Murakami, M. Sakada, S. Teshirogi, and T. Watanabe. 1987. Fever and the acute phase response induced in rabbits by human recombinant interferon-g. J. Physiol. (Lond.) 391: 209-218.
Morimoto, A., N. Murakami, and T. Watanabe. 1988. Effect of prostaglandin E2 on thermoresponsive neuron in the preoptic and ventromedial hypothalamic regions of rats. J. Physiol. (Lond.) 405: 713-725.
Morimoto, A., N. Murakami, Y. Sakata, T. Watanabe, and K. Yamaguchi. 1990. Functional and structural differences in febrile mechanism between rabbits and rats. J. Physiol. (Lond.) 427: 227-239.
Morita, I., M. Schindler, M. K. Regier, J. C. Otto, T. Hori, D. L. DeWitt, and W. L. Smith. 1995. Different intracellular locations for prostaglandin endoperoxide H synthase-1 and -2. J. Biol. Chem. 270: 10902-10908.
Muraguchi, A., T. Hirano, and B. Tang. 1988. The essential role of B cell stimulatory factor 2 (BSF2/ IL-6) for the terminal differentiation of B cells. J. Exp. Med. 167: 332-344.
Murakami, N., Y. Sakata, and T. Watanabe.. 1990. Central action sites of interleukin-1β for inducing fever in rabbits. J. Physiol. (lond.) 428: 299-312.
Musser, J. M., A. R. Hauser, M. H. Rim, P. M. Schlievert, K. Nelson, and R. K. Selander. 1991. Streptococcus pyrogenes causing toxic shock-like syndrome and other invasive diseases: clonal diversity and pyrogenic exotoxin expression. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA. 88: 2668-2672.
Nakamura, H. Y. Seto, S. Motoyoshi, T. Kadokawa, and N. Sunahara. 1988. Recombinant human tumor necrosis factor causes long-lasting and prostaglandin-mediated fever, with little tolerance in rabbit. J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. 245: 336-341.
Nedwin, G. E., L. P. Svdersky, T. S. Bringman, M. A. Palladino, and D. V. Goeddel. 1985. Effect of interleukin-2, interferon-gamma and mitogens on the production of tumor necrosis factors alpha and beta. J. Immunol. 135: 2492-2497.
Norrby-Teglund, A., K. Pauksens, M. Norgren, and S. E. Holm. 1995. Correlation between serum TNF-a and IL-6 levels and severity of group A streptococcal infections. Scand. J. Infect. Dis. 27: 125-130.
Northrop, J., G. R. Crabtree, P. S. Matilla. 1992. Negative regulation of interleukin-2 transcription by the glucocorticoid receptor. J. Exp. Med. 175: 1235-1244.
Nusten, M. W. N., E. R. De Groot, J. H. Klasen, C. E. Hack, and L. A. Arden. 1987. Serum levels of interleukin-6 and acute phase responses. Lancet. 2: 921-925.
O,Neill, G. P., W. Anthony, and W. Ford-Hutchinson. 1993. Expression of mRNA for cyclooxygenase-1 and cyclooxygenase-2 in human tissures. FEBS Lett. 330: 156-160.
Oldfield, B. J., D. K. Hards, and M. J. Mckinley. 1991. Projections from the subfornical organ to the supraoptic nuclus in the rat: ultrastructural identification of an interposed synapse in the median preoptic nucleus using a combination of neuroanl tracers. Brain Res. 558: 13-19.
Opp, M. R., F. Obal, Jr., A. B. Cady, L. Johannsen, and J. M. Kreuger. 1989. Interleukin-6 is pyrogenic but not somnogenic. Physiol. Behav. 45: 1069-1072.
O*Banion, M. K., V. D. Winn, and D. A. Young. 1992. cDNA cloning and functional activity of a glucocorticoid-regulated inflammatory cyclooxygenase. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA. 89: 4888-4892.
Phillips, M. J., and A. Camacho. 1987. Neural connections of the organum vasculosum of the laminae terminalis, p.157-169. In P. M. Gross(ed.), Circumventricular organ and body fluids. Vol.1, CRC press, Boca Raton.
Radomski, M. W., R. M. J. Palmer, and S. Moncada. 1990. Glucocorticoids inhibit the expression of an inducible, but not the constitutive nitric oxide synthase in vascular endothelial cells. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA. 87: 10043-10049.
Rameshwar, P., and P. Gascon. 1992. Release of interleukin-1 and interleukin-6 from human monocytes by antithymocyte globulin: requirement for denovo synthesis. Blood 80: 2531-2538.
Reimers, J. I., U. Bjerre, T. Mandrup-Poulsen, and J. Nerup. 1994. Interleukin-1 beta induces diabetes and fever in normal rats by nitric oxide via induction of different nitric oxide synthases. Cytokine 6: 512-520.
Saper, C. B., and C. D. Breder. 1994. The neurologic basic of fever. New Engl. J. Med. 330: 1880-1886.
Sawyer, G. H., J. W. Everett, and J. D. Green. 1954. The rabbit diencephalon in stereotaxic coordinates. J. Comp. Neurol. 101: 801-824.
Schalkwijk, C., M. Vervoordeldonk, J. Pfeilschifter, F. Marki, and H. Bosch. 1991. Cytokine and forkolin-induced synthesis of group II phospholipase A2 and prostaglandim E2 in the rat mesangial cells is prevented by dexamethasone. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 180: 46-52.
Scheinman, R. I., P. C. Cogswell, A. K. Lofquist, A. S. Baldwin Jr. 1995. Role of transcriptional activation of IkBa in mediation of immunosuppression by glucocorticoids. Science 270: 283-286.
Schlievert, P. M., K. M. Bettin, and D. W. Watson. 1977. Purification and characterization of group A streptococcal pyrogenic exotoxin type C. Immun. 16: 673-679.
Schwartz, B., R. R. Facklam, and R. F. Breiman. 1990. Changing epidemiology of group A streptococcal infection in the USA. Lancet 336: 1167-1171.
Siegert, R., W. K. Pjilipp-Dormston, K. Radsak, and H. Menzel. 1976. Mechanism of fever induction in rabbits. Infect. Immun. 14: 1130-1137.
Smith, W. L., and L. J. Marnett. 1991. Prostaglandin endoperoxide synthesis: structure and catalysis. Biochim. Biophys. Acta 1083: 1-17.
Spencer, R. C. Invasive streptococci. Eur. J. Clin. Microbiol. Infect. Dis. 14 (suppl) 1: S26-32.
Staruch, M. J., and D. D. Wood. 1985. Reduction of serum interleukin-1-like activity after treatment with dexamethasone. J. Leukocyte Biol. 37: 193-207.
Stevens, D. L., A. Bryant, and S. P. Hackett. 1993. Sepsis syndromes and toxic shock syndromes: concept in pathogenesis and perspective of future treatment strategies. Curr. Opin. Infect. Dis. 6: 374-381.
Stitt, J. T. 1985. Evidence for the involvement of the organum vasculosum laminae terminalis in the febrile response of rabbits and rats. J. Physiol. (Lond.) 368: 501-511.
Tomai, M. A., P. M. Schlievert, and M. Kotb. 1992. Distinct T cell receptor V beta gene usage by human T lymphocytes stimulated with the streptococcal pyrogenic exotoxins and pep M5 protein. Infect. Immun. 60: 701-706.
Van Damme, J., S. Cayphas, and J. Van Snick. 1987. Purification and characterization of human fibroblast-derived hybridoma growth factor identical to T-cell-derived B-cell stimulatory factor-2 (interleukin-6). Eur. J. Biochem. 168: 543-550.
Van Oers, M. H. J., H. A. Van Der, and L. A. Arden. 1988. Interleukin 6 (IL-6) in serum and urine of renal transplant recipients. Clin. Exp. Immunol. 71: 314-319.
Vane, J. 1994. Towards a better aspirin. Nature 367: 215-216.
Veal, W. L., and K. E. Cooper. 1974. Evidence for the involvement of prostaglandins in fever, p. 359-370. In K. Lederis and W. Veale (ed.), Recent Studies of Hypothalamic Function. Karger, Basel.
Veal, W. L., and K. E. Cooper. 1975. Comparison of sites of action of prostaglandin E and leucocyte pyrogen in brain, p.218-226. In J. Lomax, E. Shonbaum, and J. Jacob.(ed.), Temperature regulation and drug action. Karger, Basel.
Vink, A., P. G. Coulie, P. Wauters, R. P. Nordan, and J. V. Snick. 1988. B cell growth and differentiation activity of interleukin-HP1 and related murine plasmacytoma growth factor. Synergy with interleukin 1. Eur. J. Immunol. 18: 607-612.
Wannamaker, L. W., and P. M. Schlievert. 1988. Exotoxins of group A streptococci. In Hardegree and A. T. Tu (ed.), Bacterial toxins, Marcel Dekker, Inc., New York. p. 267-296.
Warren, R. S. F.Starnes, J. L. Gabriolove, H. F. Oettgen, and M. F. Brennan. 1987. The acute metabolic effects of tumor necrosis factor administration in human. Arch. Surg. 122: 1396-1400.
Watson, D. W. 1960. Host-parasite factors in group A streptococcal infections. Pyrogenic and other effects of immunologic distinct exotoxins related to scarlet fever toxins. J. Exp. Med. 111: 255-284.
Weindl, A., and R. J. Joynt. 1972. Ultrastructure of the ventricular walls. Arch. Neurol. 26: 420-427.
Won, S. J., and M. T. Lin. 1988. Pyrogenicity of interferon and its inducer in rabbits Am. J. Physiol. 254: R499-R507.
Yang, C. R., V. V. Senatorov, and L. Renaud. 1994. Organum vasculosum laminae terminalis-evoked postsynaptic responses in the rat supraoptic neurons in vitro. J. Physiol. (Lond.) 477: 59-74.
Yokoyama, C., T. Takai, and T. Tanbae. 1988. Primary structure of sheep prostaglandin endoperoxide synthase deduced from cDNA sequence. FEBS Lett. 231: 347-351.
QRCODE
 
 
 
 
 
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               
第一頁 上一頁 下一頁 最後一頁 top
系統版面圖檔 系統版面圖檔