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研究生:吳浩青
研究生(外文):Wu Haw-ching
論文名稱:含裂縫壓力容器之破損分析─裂縫面液壓效應
論文名稱(外文):The Failure Analysis of Cylindrical Pressure Vessel with Pressurized Internal Surface Crack
指導教授:褚 晴 暉
指導教授(外文):Chue Ching-Hwei
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立成功大學
系所名稱:機械工程學系
學門:工程學門
學類:電資工程學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:1999
畢業學年度:87
語文別:中文
論文頁數:95
中文關鍵詞:壓力容器液壓有限元素法應變能密度理論
外文關鍵詞:pressure vesselhydraulic pressurefinite element methodstrain-energy density theory
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壓力容器是工業的重要設備。這些結構件或因製造過程不當,或因受環境如溫度、內部壓力等長期作用的影響,在其內部往往產生細小的裂縫。這些裂縫日後將逐漸成長,進而造成破壞及重大災害。影響內部裂縫之成長以致於破壞的眾多因素中,作用於裂縫表面之液壓是一項不可忽視的因子。本文使用MARC有限元素套裝軟體分析,根據應力強度因子和應變能密度理論,評估破裂面液壓對結構安全的影響。
研究結果顯示,不論裂縫角度為何,只要是半橢圓裂縫之長度大於深度時,其裂縫前緣之Smin值越接近裂縫最深處越大,可以推論半橢圓裂縫應該會由裂縫最深處開始成長。而在傾斜裂縫的例子中,KⅠ和KⅢ曲線呈現對稱,而KⅡ曲線則有反對稱的狀況。由應變能密度理論可以得知裂縫在和管壁相接處附近之擴展角度將不會沿裂縫面成長,而將呈扭曲面。而因為蒲松比效應,造成與縱軸成30度之裂縫圓管最危險。

The pressure vessels are important structural components in industry. Small cracks, due to the unappropriate manufacturing process of long-term exposition to bad environment such as high temperature or internal pressure, may be induced in these structural components. Those cracks will grow up to the critical size and finally to cause catastrophic damage. Among the factors that affect the growth and propagation of cracks, the effects of hydraulic pressure applied on the fracture surface can not be ignored. The main purpose of this paper is to evaluate the safety of the integrity structure with cracks by using stress intensity factors and strain energy density theory.
Five cases which are the circumferential, the longitudinal and inclined (α=30o、45o、60o) internal semi-elliptic cracks are considered. In the first two cases, the variations of the stress intensity factors along the elliptic crack front (2ψ/π) are obtained and plotted with or without considering the hydraulic pressure applied on the crack surfaces. Since the last three cases is a kind of mixed mode crack problem, its fracture behavior has to be evaluated via the use of strain energy density theory. All the results, including the Smin’s and the angles of crack extension, have been computed. It is shown that the hydraulic pressure plays an important role in the consideration of the safety of pressurized vessels. Also, it have been proved that the poisson’s ration makes the caseα=30o more dangerous than the others.

第一章 緒論1
1.1前言1
1.2本文架構3
第二章 分析方法4
2.1有限元素法的引入4
2.2裂縫前緣奇異性之模擬11
2.3應力強度因子之計算13
2.3.1平面應變情況14
2.3.2平面應力情況19
2.4 座標轉換22
2.5應變能密度理論25
第三章 問題描述與有限元素分析27
3.1 問題描述27
3.2 三維有限元素模型的建立29
第四章 結果與討論40
4.1 範例A:含軸向未穿透裂縫之圓管結果分析40
4.2 範例B:含周向未穿透裂縫之圓管結果分析42
4.3 範例C:含傾斜30度未穿透裂縫之圓管結果分析44
4.4 範例D:含傾斜45度未穿透裂縫之圓管結果分析58
4.5 範例E:含傾斜60度未穿透裂縫之圓管結果分析71
4.6 各範例之結果分析比較85
4.7 蒲松比效應88
第五章 結論92
參考文獻93

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