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研究生:黃景政
論文名稱:平面R接頭並聯式機構之工作空間及奇異性分析
論文名稱(外文):The Workspace and Singularity Analysis of the Planar Parallel R-Joint Manipulators
指導教授:黃金沺
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立成功大學
系所名稱:機械工程學系
學門:工程學門
學類:電資工程學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:1999
畢業學年度:87
語文別:中文
論文頁數:102
中文關鍵詞:分支構形總工作空間實際工作空間邊界內奇異邊界上奇異
外文關鍵詞:BranchConfigurationTotal WorkspacesReal WorkspacesWorkspace interior SingularitiesWorkspace Boundary Singularities
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平面R接頭並聯式機構之工作空間及奇異性分析
一般化的並聯式機構比起串連式機構而言,具有較大的剛性、高精確度的優點,但卻有複雜的數學模型,由於機構本身的幾何構形,使得並聯式機構之數學模型為多個非線性方程式的聯立,經過微分之後所求得的速度方程式不但龐大且更加非線性化,因此奇異性相當複雜,在控制上也很容易發生奇異現象。若要提高並聯式機構之實用性,就必須要有一套分析及預測奇異的依據,加上適當的規劃來克服奇異的問題。
本論文首先先對分支(Branch)及構形(Configuration)做定義,以便能更清楚的釐清兩者間的差異。接下來就對一般化平面5R機構、平面並聯式3RRR機構之所有特性作分析,包括正反向運動分析、分支、工作空間以及奇性分析,並利用相對速度法推導出較簡潔的奇異方程式,以便再分析及預測奇異性上有所依據,然而以上所有的分析皆假設為所有致動器皆位在固定接頭上。接下來再探討所有可行的致動器位置組合之奇異性,並且與初始致動器組合之奇異性做比較,找出可與初始致動器配合的最佳致動器組合,以做為爾後在應用上避開奇異點的方法。根據以上的分析,可以發現工作空間、奇異曲線(面)分支、構形之的關係。
本論文中亦提出力平衡以及Grassman幾何線的觀念來證明所分析的奇異現象,最後並各舉出一個運動實例,利用所推導出的奇異方程式配合另一組最佳致動器組合,來示範如何避開路徑中的奇異點。

The Workspace and Singularity Analysis of the Planar Parallel R-Joint Manipulators
Parallel Manipulators can provide higher stiffness and accuracy than serial manipulators, but their geometric constraints are usually complicated in analysis. All of these constraint equations are highly nonlinear. As a result, velocity analysis equations are even more complicated if we differentiate the geometric constraint equations with respect to time. For this reason, the workspace and the singularity analysis of parallel manipulators are relatively difficult, and thus the applications of parallel manipulators are limited. To overcome these problems, we need to derive concise velocity equations and regard these equations as a basis of the workspace and singularity analysis of parallel manipulators.
In this paper, we are concerned with the analysis of planar parallel R-joint manipulators. We first define branches and configurations of the manipulators. And we analyze the characteristics of the planer 5R manipulator and the planar 3RRR manipulator, including their forward and inverse kinematics, workspaces, and singularities. In the singularity analysis, the relative velocity approach is used to derive concise equations. In order to avoid singularity configurations of the manipulators, we study the singularities for various combinations of actuated joints. This enables us to find the best actuation scheme during motion planning. Two examples of actuation planning are given in this thesis.
According to the analyses of planar parallel R-Joint manipulators, this thesis also find the relationships among their workspaces, singularity curves(surfaces), branches, and configurations. We also utilize the concept of force analysis and Grassman geometry to verify the derived equations.

目錄
頁次
摘要..................................................................................................Ⅰ
英文摘要......................................................................................... Ⅱ
誌謝...................................................................................................Ⅳ
目錄.................................................................................................. Ⅴ
表目錄...............................................................................................Ⅷ
圖目錄...............................................................................................Ⅸ
符號說明.......................................................................................... XII
第一章 緒論
1.1 前言..........................................................................................1
1.2 文獻回顧.................................................................................2
1.3 研究動機與目的....................................................................3
1.4 本文架構.................................................................................3
第二章 基本觀念
2.1 機構之自由度.........................................................................5
2.1.1 平面5R機構.......................................................................6
2.1.2 平面並聯式3RRR機構.....................................................7
2.2 機構之分支..............................................................................8
2.3 平面機構之機構之工作空間...............................................12
2.4速度分析與Jacobian矩陣........................................................13
2.5 機構之奇異現象.....................................................................18
2.5.1 奇異方程式........................................................................18
2.5.2 邊界上之奇異性...............................................................19
2.5.3 邊界內之奇異性...............................................................20
2.5.4 奇異性與力量的關係.......................................................20
第三章 平面5R機構之分析
3.1 正、反向運動分析.................................................................22
3.2 分支...........................................................................................23
3.3 工作空間..................................................................................24
3.4 速度分析與Jacobian矩陣推導...............................................25
3.5 奇異性.......................................................................................28
3.5.1奇異曲線.............................................................................32
3.5.2 各分支之實際工作空間..................................................33
3.6 改變致動器位置後之奇異性...............................................34
3.7 分析結果討論.........................................................................42
第四章 平面並聯式3RRR機構之分析
4.1 正、反向運動分析.................................................................43
4.2 分支...........................................................................................44
4.3 工作空間...................................................................................45
4.4 速度分析與Jacobian矩陣推導...............................................46
4.5 奇異性.......................................................................................54
4.5.1 奇異曲面.............................................................................59
4.6 改變致動器位置後之奇異性................................................62
4.7 分析結果討論..........................................................................67
第五章 致動器組合之規劃
5.1 運動路徑之分類......................................................................68
5.2 改變致動器以避開奇異位置................................................69
5.3 實例...........................................................................................70
5.4分析驗證結果討論..................................................................86
第六章 結論......................................................................................87
參考文獻...........................................................................................89
附錄A 致動器組合001之奇異方程式.........................................91
附錄B 致動器組合011之奇異方程式..........................................94
附錄C 致動器組合111之奇異方程式..........................................97
附錄D 平面並聯式3RRR機構之總工作空間.............................102

參考文獻
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9. Matone, R., and Roth, B.,1998, "In-Parallel Manipultors : A Framework on How to Model Actuation Schemes and Study of Their Effects on Singular Postures," ASME Design Engineering Technical Conferences, September 13-16, Atlanta, Georgia.
10. Long, G. L., 1995," Use of the Cylindroid for Singunality Analysis of Rank 3 Robot Manipulators," Mech. Mach. Theory., Vol. 32, No. 3, pp. 391-404.
11. Krishnamurty, S., and Turcic, D. A., 1992, "Branching Determination in Nondyadic Planar Multiloop Mechanisms," Journal of Mechanical Design, Vol. 144, pp. 245-250.
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13. Gosselin, C., and Angeles, J., 1990, "Singularity Analysis of Colsed-Loop Kinematic Chains," IEEE Transactions on Robotics and Automation, Vol. 6, No. 3, pp. 281-290.
14. Pennock, G. R., and Kassner, D. J.,1993, "The Workspace of a General Geometry Planar Three-Degree-of-Freedom Platform-Type-Manipulator," Journal of Mechanical Design, Vol. 115, pp. 269-276.
15. Gosselin, C., and Angeles, J., 1988, "The Optimim Kinematic Design of a Planar Three-Degree-of-Freedom Parallel Manipulator," Journal of Mechanisms, Transmissions and Automation in Design, Vol. 110, pp. 35-41.
16. Gosselin, C., and Angeles, J., 1990, "Kinematic Inverse of Parallel Manipulators in the Presence of Incompletely Specified Tasks," Journal of Mechanical Design, Vol 112, pp. 494-500.
17. 鍾國源,1998,平面並聯式機械臂的運動規劃,碩士論文,國立成功大學機械工程學系,台南。

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