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研究生:塗豐州
研究生(外文):Fong-Jou Tu
論文名稱:高直立封閉容器內低溫水暫態自然對流現象之研究
論文名稱(外文):Study on Transient Natural Convection of Cold Water in a Tall Vertical Enclosure
指導教授:何清政
指導教授(外文):Ching-Jenq Ho
學位類別:博士
校院名稱:國立成功大學
系所名稱:機械工程學系
學門:工程學門
學類:電資工程學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:1999
畢業學年度:87
語文別:中文
論文頁數:227
中文關鍵詞:低溫水自然對流不穩定密度逆轉封閉空間數值模擬
外文關鍵詞:cold waternatural convectioninstabilitydensity inversionenclosurenumerical simulation
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研究內容分為數值預測與實驗觀測兩部分。數值預測採有限差分法,探討充滿低溫水之二維與三維高直立容器內之自然對流轉變過程。二維數值模擬分別針對直立同心圓環與直立矩型容器,分析在密度逆轉參數為0.4與0.5下,高寬度比為8,直立同心圓環之半徑比為2,逐步調高Ra值的暫態自然對流轉變現象。研究之Ra值範圍介於 與 之間。並對相同高寬度比的三維直立矩型容器,密度逆轉參數為0.5下,探討其深寬度比的效應以及不穩定機制,研究之Ra值範圍介於 與 。數值結果藉由分析流動結構與溫度分佈、擾動振幅等值線分佈與擾動動能的型態及其分佈,深入探討導致自然對流不穩定的機構。實驗觀測部分設計高直立矩型封閉容器模型之實驗,以液晶顯像法觀察最大密度線的擺動,並以液晶為追蹤物進行流場觀測,實驗結果與數值預測結果相互驗證。
數值結果顯示當低溫水之密度逆轉現象出現,使最大密度線落在容器中間時,引發兩反向環流的產生,兩環流之間的交互作用,源自壁面噴流會合之剪力不平衡(Kelvin-Helmtloz 不穩定),並導致最大密度線扭曲,形成不穩定的密度分佈(類似 Rayleigh/Benard 不穩定),此種不穩定並影響垂直壁之邊界層流動,使邊界層流動不穩定(Tollmien Schlichting 不穩定)提前發生,形成向上波動現象。不論是矩型封閉容器或直立圓環容器,均因其最大密度線位置不同,其不穩定現象隨 Ra 提高亦有所差異,但其不穩定性仍與密度逆轉參數有較大關係。三維模型中,由流動結構、溫度分佈、向上傳遞的波動現象、主頻的關係與擾動動能的貢獻發現,不穩定現象的機制,在二維與三維的結果是一致的。由擾動動能的分析顯示,提供不穩定流動之能量源自浮力。
實驗觀測結果顯示,在發展的過程中,順時環流發展伴隨最大密度位置的移動,以及主環流內的多重環流的成長、合併移動等現象,均可由實驗的流場結構與液晶顯像描述,實驗結果顯示密度逆轉現象對低溫水的自然對流有重大影響。而理論預測與實驗結果比較,相當吻合。
The present investigation consists of numerical prediction and/or experimental visualization on the transition of natural convection of cold water in vertical enclosures. Using a finite difference method, numerical simulations of the transient natural convection of cold water contained in vertical enclosures of height/width ratio 8 (cylindrical annulus or rectangular enclosure) have been performed by increasing the Rayleigh number step by step under two different values of the density inversion parameter of 0.4 and 0.5, respectively. The range of the Rayleigh number considered is from to . The radius ratio of the cylindrical annulus is fixed at 2. The three dimensional numerical simulation focus on the natural convection of cold water in the rectangular enclosure under the density inversion parameter of 0.5 to explore the effect of the depth/width ratio of the enclosure on the instability mechanism. The range of the Rayleigh number considered for the three-dimensional simulations is from to . The evolutions of fluid flow structure and temperature distribution of cold water in the enclosures are visualized numerically by means of contour maps of streamline and/or velocity vector field and isotherm. Furthermore, the instability mechanism responsible for the transition to unsteady natural convection of cold water and its spatial distribution within the enclosures are illustrated by means of the contour maps of fluctuation magnitude of flow variables or compositions of the fluctuating kinetic energy. The experimental work in the present study mainly focuses on the flow and temperature visualizations, by means of a thermochromic liquid crystal, in a test cell, which was designed and constructed to mimic the physical configuration considered in the numerical simulations.
The results of numerical simulation clearly reveal that the value of density inversion parameter predominantly determines the profile of maximum density contour, which demarcates the two contra-rotating circulation flow structures of cold water prevailed in the enclosure. The instability mechanism appears to initiate by the Kelvin-Helmholtz instability due to shear imbalance along the sinking jet flow structure emanating from the ceiling of enclosure, which results in wavy distortion of the maximum density contour of cold water. As a result of the wavy maximum density contour, unstable density stratification (the Rayleigh-Benard instability) is induced. The vertical boundary layer flows along the vertical walls are thereby perturbed and the Tollmien-Schlichting instability arises accordingly. The laminar transition to self-sustained oscillatory convection has a strong bearing with the density inversion phenomenon of cold water. The results of two- or three-dimensional numerical simulations reveal similar mechanism for the unsteadiness of cold water in the rectangular enclosure. The production of fluctuating kinetic energy is completely contributed by the buoyancy.
The results of experimental visualization show that growing, merging and upward-drifting of the secondary vortex is accompanied wavy movement with the maximum density contour. Comparison between the numerical prediction and the experimental visualization reveals a fair agreement.
封面
中文摘要
英文摘要
誌謝
目錄
符號說明
表目錄
圖目錄
第一章 緒論
1-1 研究背景與動機
1-2 文獻回顧
1-3 本文架構
第二章 低溫水在高直立封閉容器內暫態自然對流之轉變--由穩態過渡至週期性流動
2-1 物理模型措述與基本假設
2-2 統御方程式
2-3 數值離散方法
2-4 解題方法與程序
2-5 數值方法正確性之測試
2-6 格點測試
2-7 結果與討論
2-7.1 直立圓環
2-7.2 直立矩型容器
2-7.3 半徑比效應的探討
2-8 結論
第三章 低溫水在高直立矩型封閉容器內暫態自然對流三維數值研究一由穩態過渡至週期性流動
3-1 物理模型與數學模式
3-2 數值方法與測試
3-3 數值方法正確性之測試
3-4 結果與討論
3-4.1 A =2 三維流動結構與溫度分佈
3-4.2 深寬度(A )的效應
3-4.3 平均熱傳係數( )與Ra的關係
3-5 結論
第四章 低溫水在高直矩型容器暫態自然對流之實驗量測與數值預測
4-1 實驗模型與實驗方法
4-2 實驗步驟
4-3 數值模擬
4-4 結果與討論
4-4.1 發展期間流動結構與溫度分佈
4-4.2 穩態或週期流動結構與溫度分佈
4-4.3 熱電偶電度與數值結果的比較
4-5
圖表
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