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研究生:李正怡
研究生(外文):Cheng-Yi Lee
論文名稱:利用生物濾床共代謝三氯乙烯效率提升之研究
論文名稱(外文):The Study on the Improvement of Removal Efficiency of Trichloroethylene Cometabolism By Using the Biofilter Reactor
指導教授:高銘木高銘木引用關係
指導教授(外文):Ming-Muh Kao
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立成功大學
系所名稱:環境工程學系
學門:工程學門
學類:環境工程學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:1999
畢業學年度:87
語文別:中文
論文頁數:125
中文關鍵詞:生物濾床三氯乙烯甲苯共代謝
外文關鍵詞:biofiltertrichloroethyleneTCEtoluenecometabolism
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本研究係利用生物濾床配合不同的操作條件,以求得利用甲苯為生長基質的生物濾床共代謝三氯乙烯效率的提升。
在三氯乙烯與甲苯交替進流串聯濾床的試驗中,在甲苯進流濃度500 ppmv,進氣流量2 L/min,停留時間34秒,每間隔10小時進流2小時,三氯乙烯進流濃度分別為10、30及50 ppmv,進氣流量0.2 L/min,停留時間5.63分鐘的條件下,三氯乙烯去除率分別為100﹪、100﹪及88.2﹪,當三氯乙烯流量越高,去除率越低。濾床中的微生物可因馴養而提高三氯乙烯的每日分解量,但若進流濃度過高或操作時間過久,由於三氯乙烯代謝產物的影響,分解量會漸漸下降。而在任何操作條件之下,三氯乙烯的礦化程度皆可達70﹪,因此三氯乙烯在以甲苯為生長基質的生物濾床中,確實可被分解成無害的最終產物。
在植種工業污泥與植種T1菌之單段濾床試驗中,無論是植種工業污泥或是植種T1菌的濾床,當進流甲苯濃度越低,三氯乙烯的去除效率也越低。植種T1菌的濾床在三種甲苯濃度之下,達到穩定所需的時間較短,去除率較高,轉化率也較高,但並無法增加甲苯的負荷量。由六組濾床相近的礦化程度(85.4±2.71﹪)可知,植種T1菌或增加甲苯濃度雖可增加三氯乙烯的去除效率,但無法增加其礦化程度。由轉化率亦可知,甲苯氧化酵素在任何操作條件下均已消耗完畢,因此甲苯氧化酵素的量為分解三氯乙烯的限制因子。
液體培養批次試驗中,在五種不同的甲苯初始濃度之下,T1菌分解三氯乙烯的效果均較T5好,而在三氯乙烯濃度3.36 mg/L的情況下,甲苯濃度對T1菌的影響比三氯乙烯濃度對T1菌的影響還明顯,而三氯乙烯對T5菌的影響則較大。由於三氯乙烯或甲苯代謝產物的累積,三氯乙烯的分解速率會越來越慢。在固定的甲苯含量下,以重覆添加的方式可提高三氯乙烯的去除率。
在生物濾床試驗中,由於供氣量充足,溶氧並非限制因子,但在批次試驗中,溶氧量是一重要的限制因子,因此將來應用於土壤或地下水現地生物復育時,供氣量應列入考量。
Trichloroethylene(TCE)has become an important environmental pollutant because of its toxic properties and its wildspread occurrence as soil, air and water containminants. Air streams contaminated with TCE is common as by-product of air-stripping and soil-vapor-extraction opeations. The purpose of this research is to improve the removal efficiency of TCE cometabolism by using a biofilter reactor.
When inlet concentration of TCE was continuously supplied at 10, 30 and 50 ppmv and toluene was interval supplied 2 hours every 10 hours at 500 ppmv into the two-stage biofilter system, the 100﹪, 100﹪and 88.2 ﹪removal efficiency of TCE were attained, respectively, as the gas resident time of toluene and TCE was at 34 seconds and 5.6 minutes, respectively.The lower gas resident time or higher TCE concentration, the removal efficiency of TCE was reduced. The conversion rate of TCE into chloride can reach to 82.5﹪. This result indicated that TCE could be completely degraded in compost biofilter while toluene was used as the enzyme inducer.
For the experiment of comparing the removal efficiencies which seeding with TCE cometabolic strain T1 or activated sludge in single biofilter system, it has shown that seeding with Strain T1 or increasing the concentration of toluene resulted in higher TCE removal efficiency. However, the conversion of chloride ion almost no difference even the biofilter system was seeded with Strain T1 or activated sludge. The TCE transformation rate were 0.052 and 0.039 while the biofilter was seeded with strain T1 and activated sludge, respectively.
For batch liquid culture experiments,under five various initial toluene concentration, the TCE removal efficiencies of strain T1 were higher than that of strain T5. When the concentration of TCE was 3.36mg/L, toluene was more toxic than TCE for strain T1, but it was contrary for strain T5. The TCE transformation rate was low because of accumulating TCE or toluene metabolites. In addition, the amount of dissolved oxygen is an extremely important limiting factor for the cometabolism of TCE.
第一章 前言.....................................................................................................1
第二章 文獻回顧.............................................................................................2
2-1 含氯有機溶劑之使用現況及污染現況...............................................2
2-2 三氯乙烯之特性、用途及危害...........................................................4
2-3 三氯乙烯與甲苯之生物分解途徑.......................................................7
2-4 三氯乙烯對微生物造成的毒性效應.................................................11
2-5 基質競爭效應.....................................................................................13
2-6 不同微生物對三氯乙烯的分解效果.................................................15
2-7 生物濾床的理論基礎、構造及影響因子.........................................18
2-7-1 生物濾床理論基礎.................................................................18
2-7-2生物濾床的構造......................................................................19
2-7-3影響生物濾床的因子..............................................................19
第三章 實驗設備與方法...............................................................................24
3-1 實驗設備.............................................................................................24
3-1-1 濾床結構.................................................................................24
3-1-2 三氯乙烯及甲苯氣體產生設備.............................................25
3-1-3 濾料.........................................................................................25
3-1-4 植種來源.................................................................................25
3-1-5 酸鹼緩衝劑.............................................................................27
3-1-6 濾料之配製.............................................................................27
3-2 實驗方法.............................................................................................28
3-2-1 濾料總吸附量.........................................................................28
3-2-2 第一階段濾床試驗.................................................................28
3-2-3 甲苯分解菌菌種篩選試驗.....................................................30
3-2-4 第二階段濾床試驗.................................................................31
3-2-5 甲苯分解菌共代謝三氯乙烯液體培養批次試驗.................33
3-3分析方法..............................................................................................34
3-3-1濾料理化性質分析..................................................................34
3-3-2氣體濃度分析及方法..............................................................36
3-3-3 液體培養理化性質分析.........................................................37
第四章 結果與討論.......................................................................................39
4-1 吸附貫穿曲線與濾料吸附容量.........................................................39
4-2 第一階段濾床試驗.............................................................................41
4-2-1 濾床馴養期.............................................................................41
4-2-2 濾床試驗結果.........................................................................41
4-2-3 濾料分析結果.........................................................................50
4-3 甲苯分解菌菌種篩選試驗.................................................................55
4-4 第二階段濾床試驗.............................................................................57
4-4-1 濾床試驗結果.........................................................................57
4-4-2 濾料分析結果.........................................................................63
4-5 甲苯分解菌共代謝三氯乙烯液體培養試驗結果.............................67
4-5-1 甲苯不重覆添加.....................................................................67
4-5-2 甲苯重覆添加.........................................................................71
4-5-3 液體培養理化性質分析結果.................................................80
4-5-4 菌種鑑定結果.........................................................................85
第五章 結論與建議.......................................................................................86
5-1 結論.....................................................................................................86
5-2 建議.....................................................................................................89
參考文獻.........................................................................................................91
附錄..........................................103
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