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研究生:謝佳禕
研究生(外文):Hsieh Chia Yi
論文名稱:修車廠作業員工揮發性有機物質暴露評估
論文名稱(外文):Exposure Assessment of Volatile Organic Compounds for Garage Workers
指導教授:李俊璋李俊璋引用關係
指導教授(外文):Lee Ching Chang
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立成功大學
系所名稱:環境醫學研究所
學門:醫藥衛生學門
學類:公共衛生學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:1999
畢業學年度:87
語文別:中文
論文頁數:83
中文關鍵詞:修車廠員工汽油揮發性有機物質甲基第三丁基醚芳香烴化合物個人及定點暴露量測致癌及非致風險評估
外文關鍵詞:garage workergasolinevolatile organic compounds (VOCs)methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE)aromatic compoundspersonal and stationary exposure measurementscarcinogenic and noncarcinogenic risk assessment
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汽油為一成分複雜的混合有機物質,組成物包括烷類、烯類及芳香烴化合物,此外,為增加汽油燃燒效率需摻配醇醚類添加劑如甲基第三丁基醚(Methyl tert-Butyl Ether,MTBE)。汽油組成物中多數為有害人體健康之毒性物質,其可藉由蒸氣逸散或廢氣排放的途徑造成人體暴露。修車廠員工在作業過程中不僅容易接觸油氣逸散及廢氣排放,其所使用的物料中亦含多種揮發性有機物質(Volatile Organic Compounds,VOCs)成分。本研究以台南市四家修車廠員工為研究對象,進行個人VOCs暴露濃度及環境空氣中VOCs濃度之量測。研究目的為獲致修車廠中VOCs及MTBE之特徵成分及暴露濃度資料,以進行修車廠作業員工VOCs及MTBE之致癌及非致癌危險性評估;並根據現勘作業員工的工作型態,使用原料、物料及廠房通風情形等作業特性之分析,瞭解VOCs及MTBE之特徵成分及濃度分布的差異原因。
根據問卷調查結果顯示,各廠員工年齡及工作年資分布無顯著差異,其中均約有四成的員工具抽煙習慣;員工使用呼吸防護具的情形偏低,以A廠員工使用比例最高約有38.1%,呼吸防護具種類以活性碳口罩為主;目前修車廠員工最常用來去除油圬的清潔劑為洗手粉,但仍有四成的員工習慣使用煤油作為洗手劑;員工於工作中使用含VOCs成分之有機物料頻率頗高,以經常使用(每部車皆需用)或偶爾使用(每10部車使用一次)之情形最普遍。個人健康方面之調查顯示,工作中不適症狀及醫師診斷病症分別以咳嗽(26.7%)及過敏性鼻炎(20.9%)的發生比例最高。
根據個人暴露濃度量測結果顯示,修車廠員工由於環境因素、個人工作量或衛生習慣的不同導致個人暴露情形的差異,其中以C廠員工暴露濃度為最高,總VOCs暴露濃度為3614.63±3.45 mg/m3 (GM±GSD)。根據作業別探討個人VOCs暴露情形的差異,引擎修護組員工由於易接觸油箱的油氣逸散、引擎運轉的廢氣排放及辛烷值提升劑的使用,以MTBE及Benzene暴露濃度較高,其暴露濃度分別為20.21±7.32及52.42±2.34 mg/m3;鈑金及噴漆組員工受補土、漆料及稀釋劑所含之VOCs暴露,故以Toluene、Ethylbenzene、m- & p-Xylene、o-Xylene、 1,2,4-Trimethylbenzene及1,3,5-Trimethylbenzene之暴露濃度偏高。個人工作量與引擎修護組員工MTBE及Benzene暴露濃度呈正相關,相關係數(R)分別為0.314及0.327;鈑金及噴漆組由於樣本數過少,工作量與VOCs暴露濃度未呈現顯著相關性。
環境空氣中VOCs濃度量測結果顯示,A廠由於廠房開口面積最大,通風情形較其他修車廠良好,故空氣中各項VOCs濃度最低。由廠內VOCs等濃度曲線圖顯示,修車廠內MTBE及Benzene之高暴露區來自引擎修護區,其他芳香烴化合物則以噴漆區之貢獻量為最高。
利用個人暴露濃度值進行修車廠員工致癌及非致癌風險評估之結果顯示,修車廠員工工作五年之benzene終生致癌危險度較一般人可接受的風險度高出6~20倍,MTBE致癌風險度則高達0.9~42倍(腎傷害)及4.5~200倍(生殖系統傷害)。非致癌風險度以B廠員工最高,總VOCs危害指標(Hazard Index,HI)為2.60,顯示修車廠中個人VOCs暴露情形已足以造成對人體健康的危害。

Gasoline is a complex mixture of many constituents in varying proportions, including alkanes, alkenes and aromatics, which make up the large majority of gasoline. Other substances which can increase the octane number, such as alcohols, ethers, and additives, may also be present. In Taiwan, the unleaded gasoline contains the most common oxygenate, methyl tert-butyl ether at levels of 2~11% by volume. Among the components of evaporative emissions, volatile organic compounds (VOCs) such as benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, m-xylene, o-xylene, p-xylene, 1,3,5-trimethylbenzene, and 1,2,4-trimethylbenzene, are designated as hazardous air pollutants and have become an increasing health concern to the public. In this research, four garages in Tainan City were selected to conduct a pilot study to measure personal exposure and stationary environmental VOCs concentrations. Questionnaire was used to collect personal information about personal basic information, working history, job title and habits in order to get rid of confounding bias. These data were the basis for each person's exposure categories (engine repair group, mechanic repair group, painting group and administrative group).
The analysis results show that the personal total VOCs exposure level of garage workers ranges from 107.50 mg/m3 to 30478.71 mg/m3. The personal total VOCs exposure level of the garage C workers is the highest (geometric mean±geometric standard deviation is 3614.63±3.45 mg/m3). The engine repair groups have higher benzene and MTBE exposure level than other workers, their MTBE and benzene exposure level are 20.21±7.32 mg/m3 and 52.42±2.34 mg/m3. The painting groups have higher aromatic compounds exposure level than other workers. The highest concentration of each component in painting groups is toluene (1059.11±11.22 mg/m3), and the lowest is MTBE (6.08±4.59 mg/m3).
The analysis results show that total VOCs concentration in workplace ranges from 5.88 mg/m3 to 21414.97 mg/m3 , and the total VOCs concentration in ambient ranges from 15.82 mg/m3 to 3511.30 mg/m3. The VOCs concentration measured by stationary sampling at workplace and ambient shows that the benzene and MTBE concentration in the engine repair workplace are higher than other places, and aromatic compounds concentration in the painting workplace is higher than other places.
The carcinogenic risk associated with the measured benzene exposure is calculated with upper-bound unit risk factor of benzene, 8.3×10-6 lifetime cancer per mg/m3 benzene. The result suggests that upper-bound cancer risk of garage workers ranges from 4.61×10-8 to 6.39×10-5 for five-year occupational exposure in the garage. The carcinogenic risk associated with the measured MTBE exposure is calculated with slope factor of MTBE, 1.9’10-3 (renal tubular cell adenoma and carcinoma) or 9.2’10-3 (testicular interstitial cell tumors)(mg/kg-day)-1. The result shows that cancer risk of garage workers ranges from 3.94’10-8 to 4.07’10-4 (renal tubular cell adenoma and carcinoma) and 1.91’10-7 to 1.97’10-3 (testicular interstitial cell tumors).

第一章 緒論………………………………………………………………….1
1-1 研究緣起…………………………………………………………….1
1-2 研究目的…………………………………………………………….2
第二章 文獻回顧…………………………………………………………….3
2-1 汽油之組成………………………………………………………….3
2-2 揮發性有機物質之暴露來源……………………………………….6
2-3 甲基第三丁基醚之危害特性……………………………………...11
2-4 健康危險性評估……………………………………….…………..15
第三章 研究材料及方法……………………………………….…………..18
3-1 研究設計………………………………………………………...…18
3-2 研究對象…………………………………………………………...19
3-3 研究方法…………………………………………………………...19
第四章 結果與討論………………………………………………………...27
4-1 現場勘查結果……………………………………….……………..27
4-2 問卷調查結果……………………………………….……………..29
4-3 品保品管結果……………………………………….……………..32
4-4 修車廠作業員工個人VOCs暴露量評估…………………………33
4-5 環境空氣中VOCs濃度之量測…………………….……………...41
4-6 健康風險評估……………………………………….……………..45
第五章 結論與建議………………………………………………………...48
參考文獻………………………………………………………….…………..52
附錄一(修車廠作業員工調查問卷)

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