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研究生:洪怡宏
研究生(外文):I-Hung Hung
論文名稱:發展以虛擬實境為主之平衡評估系統
論文名稱(外文):Development of a Virtual Reality Environment for Balance Assessment
指導教授:陳家進陳家進引用關係
指導教授(外文):Jia-Jin Jason Chen
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立成功大學
系所名稱:醫學工程研究所
學門:工程學門
學類:綜合工程學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:1999
畢業學年度:87
語文別:中文
論文頁數:69
中文關鍵詞:虛擬實境站立平衡感覺整合測試奇異值分解法腳底壓力中心位置平衡評估
外文關鍵詞:virtual realitystanding balanceSensory Organization TestSOTsingular value decompositionSVDcenter of pressureCOPbalance evaluation
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視覺系統、本體感系統及前庭系統是控制人體姿勢以及維持身體平衡的三種重要的感知系統,這三種感知系統對於姿勢控制及站立平衡的影響可由感覺整合測試(Sensory Organization Test , SOT)來評估。對於中風患者,年老病患及腦性麻痺等動作異常者的站立平衡功能,臨床上發展出數種測試方法來評估。本研究欲運用虛擬實境(virtual reality)科技,建立一套適用且造價合理的平衡評估系統。
整個虛擬實境平衡評估系統包含了頭戴式顯示器(head mounted display)、三度空間定位器(3D tracker)、移動平台(force platform)、角度偵測器(encoder)及個人電腦(personal computer),藉由移動平台及視覺擬真,可以產生SOT測試法中六種的測試模式。本研究設計一方便使用者介面,使用者經由此使用者介面可執行不同模式的平衡測試,同時記錄受試者腳底壓力中心位置(center of pressure, COP)。利用奇異值分解法(singular value decomposition, SVD)分析受試者的壓力中心位置,將可以計算出壓力中心主軸的特徵值與特徵向量,以便求出壓力中心的搖晃面積與方向,再以極座標表示出,則可以顯示出受試者的搖晃方向。
在實驗過程中,將三十個正常受試者分成5-7歲、8-9歲及19-23歲三個年齡層,每一組十人,以評估年齡、本體感覺及視覺刺激對平衡的影響。一般而言,年齡會影響控制平衡的能力,也就是說年齡越小搖晃的程度越大,而本體感覺也會影響控制平衡的能力,當站在不平穩的地面會增加搖晃的面積。在視覺刺激期間搖晃程度也有增加的趨勢,尤其在不平穩的地面,這個情況特別見於5-7歲的小孩。我們的結論如下:1)當本體感覺受干擾,受測者依賴視覺來調整姿勢。2)5-7歲小孩的感覺整合功能尚未發展成熟。3)虛擬實境平衡評估系統可被用來評估較需要依賴視覺來控制平衡的受試者。
Visual, somatosensory and vestibular systems are three important sensory sources, which provide information about the body''s spatial position and orientation in the environment. The effect of these three sensory inputs and their interaction on postural control or standing balance can be evaluated by sensory organization test (SOT). Various functional tests have been developed to observe the factors influencing the standing balance for stroke patients, elderly patients, and children with postural control disorders. The aim of this research was to establish a less expensive virtual reality (VR) environment combined with tilting force platform for balance and postural control assessment.
The VR-based balance assessment system which consists of head mounted display (HMD), 3D trackers (3D space), force platform, angle encoder and personal computer. By moving the platform and tilting image passing the subject''s visual field, six sensory conditions generally used in SOT can be generated. Balance was quantified by the center of pressure (COP). For the execution of different visual stimulation patterns, a friendly graphic user interface was implemented in this study for monitoring the data quality of COP. Singular value decomposition technique is used to calculate the eigenvalue and eigenvector of the COP data. Derived polar coordinates were used to indicate the sway direction of the subjects.
Thirty normal subjects (10 of each group; 5-7 years, 8-10 years, 19-23 years) participated in this study to examine the effect of age, somatosensation and visual patterns stimulation. Generally, there was an age effect of their balance, which means children in the youngest group swayed more than subjects in the young adults. There was also a somatosensory effect. When subjects stood on uneven surface, they swayed more than on fixed floor. There was also a trend that subjects swayed more during the time of visual stimulation. And this trend was more obvious when the support surface was uneven (somatosensory information was unreliable). This effect was most obvious in children of 5-7 years old. We interpreted these results as follows: 1) When the somatosensory input is unreliable, individuals shift to depend on visual information for referring their posture. 2) The sensory organization function has not fully developed in children of 5-7 years old. 3) This virtual reality (VR) environment balance assessment system can be used to detect the subject who is more visually dependent in balance control and the function of sensory organization.
目錄
英文摘要III
中文摘要IV
致謝V
圖目錄VI
表目錄IX
第一章 緒論1
1.1姿勢與站立平衡1
1.2虛擬實境技術3
1.3文獻回顧5
1.4研究的動機與目的11
第二章 方法12
2.1虛擬實境平衡評估系統12
2.2軟體系統設計17
2.2.1 系統主程式18
2.2.2 虛擬實境程式22
2.2.3 測力板使用者介面程式25
2.3系統整合29
2.4視覺干擾平衡實驗30
2.5利用模擬訊號分析身體搖晃的特性39
第三章 結果和討論42
3.1 模擬訊號經SVD處理後的結果42
3.2 系統測試結果44
3.3 視覺干擾平衡分析結果49
3.3.1 搖晃方向之分析49
3.3.2 搖晃面積之分析55
第四章 結論59
參考文獻61
附錄64
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