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研究生:趙文其
論文名稱:目標取向父母導引動機氣候與知覺能力對國中生柔道選手賽前狀態焦慮和運動樂趣的影響
論文名稱(外文):The Effect of Goal Orientation Perceived Parent Motivational Climate and Perceived Ability on Precompetition State Anxiety and Sport Enjoyment in Youth Judo Players
指導教授:盧俊宏盧俊宏引用關係
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立體育學院
系所名稱:運動科學研究所
學門:民生學門
學類:運動科技學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:1999
畢業學年度:87
語文別:中文
論文頁數:106
中文關鍵詞:目標取向父母導引動機氣候知覺能力賽前狀態焦慮運動樂趣
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本研究的目的在探討運動選手目標取向、知覺父母導引的動機氣候與知覺能力對賽前狀態焦慮和運動樂趣之間的相關以及預測情形。受試者為參加台北市87學年度中等學校(國中組)柔道錦標賽選手,共計六隊,94人(男生64人;女生30人),平均年齡14.16±0.71歲。
本研究的結論顯示:
一、 經皮爾遜積差相關分析後發現:
(一)在賽前狀態性焦慮的相關部份
1.在目標取向方面
a.工作取向與自我取向呈正相關。
b.工作取向與賽前自信心呈正相關。
c.自我取向與賽前身體性焦慮和認知性焦慮呈正相關。
2.在知覺父母導引的動機氣候方面
a.學習樂趣氣候與賽前自信心呈正相關。
b.成果表現氣候與賽前身體性焦慮和認知性焦慮呈正相關。
c.擔憂疑慮氣候與賽前認知性焦慮呈正相關。
3.在知覺能力方面:與賽前自信心呈正相關;而與賽前身體性焦慮和認知性焦慮呈負相關。
(二)在運動樂趣的相關部份
1.在目標取向方面
a.工作取向與運動樂趣中的內在/成就和內在/非成就呈正相關。
b.自我取向與運動樂趣中的外在/成就呈正相關;而與內在/非成就呈負相關。
2.在知覺父母導引的動機氣候方面
a.學習樂趣氣候與運動樂趣中的內在/成就和內在/非成就呈正相關。
b.成果表現氣候與運動樂趣中的內在/成就呈負相關;而與外在/成就和外在/非成就呈正相關。
c.擔憂疑慮氣候與運動樂趣中的內在/成就和外在/非成就呈正相關。
3.在知覺能力方面:與運動樂趣的內在/成就呈正相關。
二、 經逐步迴歸分析後發現:
1.選手知覺的成果表現氣候、自我取向、知覺能力是賽前身體性焦慮的有效預測變項。
2.選手自我取向、知覺的成果表現氣候、與擔憂疑慮氣候、知覺能力是賽前認知性焦慮的有效預測變項。
3.選手知覺的學習樂趣氣候、知覺能力、工作取向、及知覺的成果表現氣候是賽前自信心的有效預測變項。
4.選手工作取向、知覺的學習樂趣氣候、及知覺的成果表現氣候是運動樂趣中的內在/成就有效預測變項。
5.選手知覺的學習樂趣氣候與工作取向是運動樂趣中的內在/非成就有效預測變項。
6.選手自我取向、知覺的成果表現氣候、及知覺的擔憂疑慮氣候是運動樂趣的外在/成就有效預測變項。
7.選手知覺的成果表現氣候、自我取向、及知覺能力是運動樂趣的外在/非成就的有效預測變項。
本研究大致符合個理論之相關與預測的方向。並且分別延伸現今運動心理學在目標取向理論、父母導引動機氣候和知覺能力在運動競賽焦慮和運動樂趣的研究發現。未來研究可結合其他相關社會認知理論如完美主義或自我呈現,並檢驗它們在運動相關情緒和行為方面的預測情形。
The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of goal orientations, perceived parent-initiated motivational climate and perceived ability to Pre-competition State Anxiety and Sport Enjoyment. Subjects were 94 (male 64, female 30) youth judo players participated from six junior high school judo teams. Subjects’ mean age was 14.16±0.71 years. During a practice session and competition, subjects were quested to complete a questionnaire. Which assessed subjects’ goal orientations, perceived parent-initiated motivational climate, perceived judo ability, state anxiety, and their sport enjoyment.
The results of exploratory factor analyses and reliability analyses indicated that the Task and Ego Orientations in Sport Questionnaire (TEOSQ), Perceived Parent-Initiated Motivational Climate in Sport Questionnaire (PIMCQ), Competitive State Anxiety Inventory-2 (CASI-2) and Sport Enjoyment Questionnaire (SEQ) demonstrated acceptable construct validity and internal consistency.
The result of Pearson correlation analyses indicated that ego orientation and perceptions of a success-without-effort climate were positively associated with both cognitive and somatic anxiety. In contrast, perceptions of a worry-conducive climate were positively related to cognitive anxiety. Than task orientation and perceptions of a leaning enjoyment climate were positively related to self-confidence and negatively related to perceptions of a success-without-effort climate. Another perceived ability were positively related to self-confidence and negatively related to both cognitive and somatic anxiety. On the other hand, task orientation, perceptions of a success-without-effort climate, perceptions of a leaning enjoyment climate, perceptions of a worry-conducive climate, and perceived ability were positively related to intrinsic/achievement. Than task orientation and ego orientation were positively related to intrinsic/non-achievement. Than ego orientation, perceptions of a success-without-effort climate, perceptions of a leaning enjoyment climate, perceptions of a worry-conducive climate, and perceived ability were positively related to extrinsic/non-achievement. In contrast, ego orientation and perceptions of a success-without-effort climate were positively related to extrinsic/achievement.
The results of stepwise multiple-regression analysis were as follow: 1. Perceptions of a success-without-effort climate, ego orientation, and perceived ability were the three effective predictors of somatic anxiety. 2. Ego orientation, perceptions of a success-without-effort climate, perceptions of a worry-conducive climate, and perceived ability were the three effective predictors of cognitive anxiety. 3. Perceptions of a leaning enjoyment climate, perceived ability, task orientation, and perceptions of a success-without-effort climate were the four effective predictors of self-confidence. 4. Task orientation, perceptions of a leaning enjoyment climate, and perceptions of a success-without-effort climate were the three effective predictors of intrinsic/achievement. 5. Perceptions of a leaning enjoyment climate, and task orientation were the two effective predictors of intrinsic/non-achievement. 6. Ego orientation, perceptions of a success-without-effort climate, and perceptions of a worry-conducive climate were the three effective predictors of extrinsic/achievement. 7. Perceptions of a success-without-effort climate, ego orientation, perceived ability were the three effective predictors of extrinsic/non-achievement.
Based on the results of this study, parents should created positively task orientation and leaning enjoyment climate. The other hand, they avoid excessive emphasize success-without-effort climate and don’t care about worry-conducive climate. The implications and future directions of the study were also discussed.
第壹章 緒論
第一節 研究動機……………………………………….……1
第二節 研究目的……………………………….……………5
第三節 研究問題………………………………………….…6
第四節 名詞解釋…………………………………….………6
第貳章 文獻探討
第一節 運動目標取向理論………………………………..10
第二節 目標取向與知覺能力……………………………..17
第三節 目標取向與賽前狀態焦慮………………………..20
第四節 目標取向與運動樂趣……………………………..24
第五節 研究假設…………………………………………..26
第參章 研究方法
第一節 研究架構…………………………………………..28
第二節 預試………………………………………………..29
第三節 正式調查………………………………………....45
第四章 研究結果
第一節 受試者在各變項的基本統計描述…………….........46
第二節 目標取向、父母導引的動機氣候、
知覺能力對賽前狀態焦慮以及運動
樂趣的簡單相關分析…………………………...... 47
第三節 目標取向、父母導引的動機氣候、
知覺能力對賽前狀態焦慮以及運
動樂趣的逐步迴歸分析………………………................49
第伍章 討論
第一節 主要量表的分析……………………………….........57
第二節 目標取向、父母導引的動機氣候、
及知覺能力對賽前狀態焦慮與運
動樂趣的簡單相關分析………………………................62
第三節 目標取向、父母導引的動機氣候、
及知覺能力對賽前狀態焦慮與運
動樂趣的預測力………………………………................66
第陸章 結論與建議
第一節 結論……………………………………………….......71
第二節 建議……………………………………………….......75
參考文獻……………………………………………………………78
附錄一 運動目標取向量表(原稿)…………………………..88
附錄二 知覺父母導引的動機氣候量表(原稿)……………..89
附錄三 賽前狀態焦慮量表(原稿)……………………………92
附錄四 運動樂趣量表(原稿)…………………………………94
附錄伍 國中柔道選手運動經驗評鑑量表……………………..96
圖 表 次
表2-1 動機的動力過程………………………………………….15
表2-2 目標取向、知覺能力與成就行為的關係……………...17
圖3-1 研究架構………………………………………………….30
表3-1 運動目標取向量表項目分析與因素分析結果
摘要表…………………………………………………….32
表3-2 父母導引動機氣候量表項目分析與因素分析
結果摘要表……………………………………………….34
表3-3 運動賽前狀態焦慮量表項目分析與因素分析
結果摘要表……………………………………………….37
表3-4 運動樂趣量表項目分析與因素分析結果摘要表……...40
表3-5 各國中代表各隊受試者的基本資料…………………...43
表4-1 受試者在各變向上基本統計資料(平均數與標準差)...48
表4-2 目標取向、父母導引動機氣候、知覺能力對
賽前狀態焦慮和運動樂趣相關分析…………………...49
表4-3 以「賽前身體性焦慮」為效標變項的逐步迴
歸分析…………………………………………………….51
表4-4 以「賽前認知性焦慮」為效標變項的逐步迴
歸分析…………………………………………………….52
表4-5 以「賽前自信心」為效標變項的逐步迴歸分析……...53
表4-6 以「內在/成就」為效標變項的逐步迴歸分析………..54
表4-7 以「內在/非成就」為效標變項的逐步迴歸分析……..55
表4-8 以「外在/成就」為效標變項的逐步迴歸分析………..56
表4-9 以「外在/非成就」為效標變項的逐步迴歸分析……..57
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Scanlan, T.K., & Lewthwait, R., & Jackson, B.L. (1984). Social psychological aspects of competition for male youth sport participants: Ⅱ. Predictors of performance outcomes. Journal of Sport Psychology, 6: 422-429.
Scanlan, T.K., & Lewthwait, R. (1986). Social psychological aspects of competition for male youth sport participants: Ⅳ. Predictors of enjoyment. Journal of Sport Psychology, 8: 25-35.
Scanlan, T,L., Stein, G.L., & Ravizza, K. (1989). An in-depth study of former elite figure skaters: Sources of enjoyment. Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology, 11: 452-457.
Seifrize, J.J., Duda, J.L., & Chi, L. (1992). The relationship of perceived motivational climate to intrinsic motivation and beliefs about success in basketball. Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology, 14: 375-391.
Smoll, F.L., & Smith, R.E. (1988). Reducing stress in youth sport: Theory and application. In F.L. Smoll, R.A. Magill, & M.J. Ash (Eds), Children in sport (pp. 229-249). Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics.
Walling, N.D., Duda, J.L., & Chi, L. (1993). The perceived motivational climate in sport questionnaire: Construct and predictive validity. Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology, 15: 172-183.
White, S.A., Duda, J.L., & Hart, S. (1992). An exploratory examination of the parent-initiated motivational climate questionnaire. Perceptual and Motor Skill, 75: 875-880.
White, S.A., & Duda, J.L. (1993). The relationship between goal orientation and parent-initiated motivational climate among children learning a physical skill. Paper Presented at the 8th world meeting for the International Society for Sport Psychology. Lisbon. Portugal.
White, S.A., & Duda, J.L. (1994). The relationship of gender, level of sport involvement, and participation motivation to goal orientations. International Journal of Sport Psychology, 25: 4-18.
White, S.A. ( 1996 ). Goal orientation and perceptions of the motivational climate initiated by parents.。Pediatric Exercise Science, 8: 122-129.
Vealey, R.S., & Campbell, J.L. (1988). Achievement goals adolescent figure skaters: Impact on self-confidence, anxiety, and performance. Journal of Adolescent Research, 3: 227-243.
英文部份:
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Burtom, D. (1989). Winning isn’t everything: Examining the impact of performance goals on collegiate swimmers’ cognition and performance. The Sport Psychologist, 3, 105 — 132.
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Duda, J.L., & Chi, L. (1989). The effect of task- and ego- involving conditions on perceived competence and causal attributions in basketball. Paper presented at the meeting of the Association for the Advancement of Applied Sport Psychology, University of Washington, Seattle.
Duda, J.L., Chi, L., & Newton, M. (1990). Sychometric characteristics of the TEOSQ. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the North American Society for the psychology of sport and physical activity, University of Houston, TX.
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Duda,J.L.(1992).Motivation in sport setting: A goal perspective approach. In G. C. Roberts(Ed.) Motivation in Sport and Exercise (pp.57-92). Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics Books.
Duda, J.L., & Nicholls, J.G. (1992). Dimensions of achievement motivation in schoolwork and sport. Journal of Educational Psychology, 84:290-299.
Duda, J.L., Fox, K.R., Biddle, S.J.H., & Armstrong, N. (1992). Children’s achievement goals and beliefs about success in sport. British Journal of Educational Psychology, 62: 309-319.
Duda, J.L., & White, S.A. (1992). Goal Orientation and Beliefs about the Cause of Sport Success Among Elite Skiers. The Sport Psychologist, 6: 334-343.
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Hall, H. (1990). A social-cognitive approach to goal setting: The mediating effect of achievement goals and perceived ability. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of Illinois, IL.
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Maehr, M.L., & Nicholls, J.G. (1980). Culture and achievement motivation: A second look. In N. Warren (Ed.), Studies in cross cultural psychology ( pp.221-267). New York: Academic press.
Maehr, M.L., & Braskamp, L.A. (1986). The motivation factor. A Theory of Personal Investment. Lexington, MA: Lexington Books.
Martens, R. (1977). The paradigmatic crises in American sport personality. In A.C. Fisher (Ed.). Psychology of Sport. Palo Alto. CA: Mayfild.
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Newssham, S. (1989). The effects of a task-oriented physical education program on the self-perception of third, fourth,。and fifth grade students. Unpublished doctor dissertation, University of Southern California.
Newton, M.L., & Duda, J.L., (1992). The Relationship of Goal Perspectives to Multidimensional Trait Anxiety In Adolescent Tennis Players. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the North American Society for the Psychology of Sport and Physical Activity, Pittsburgh, PA.
Nicholls, J.G. (1984). Achievement motivation: Concep-tions of ability, subjective experience, task choice, and performance. Psychological Review, 91: 328-346.
Nicholls, J.G. (1989). The Competitive Ethos And Democratic Education. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Orgell, S., & Duda, J.L. (1990). The effects of gender and a task-versus ego-involving condition on intrinsic motivation and perceived competence in sport . Paper presented at the annual meeting of the North American Society for the Psychology of Sport and Physical Activity, University of Houston, TX.
Roberts, G.C. (1984). Achievement And Motivation In Children’s Sport. In J.G. Nicholls (Ed.), Advances in motivation and achievement: Vol. 3. The development of achievement and motivation(pp.251-281). Green-wich, CT: JAI Press.
Roberts, G.C. (1986). The perception of stress: A potential source and its development. In M.R. Weiss, & D. Gould (Eds.), Sport for children and youth (pp. 119-126). Chamoign, IL: Human Kinetics.
Scanlan. T.K., & Passer, M.W. (1979a). Factor influencing the competitive performance expect-ancies of young female athletes, Journal of Sport Psychology, 1: 212-220.
Scanlan. T.K., & Passer, M.W. (1979b). Factor of competitive stress in young female athletes, Journal of Sport Psychology, 1: 151-159.
Scanlan, T.K., & Lewthwait, R. (1984). Social psychological aspects of competition for male youth sport participants:Ⅰ. Predictors of competitive stress. Journal of Sport Psychology, 6: 208-226.。
Scanlan, T.K., & Lewthwait, R., & Jackson, B.L. (1984). Social psychological aspects of competition for male youth sport participants: Ⅱ. Predictors of performance outcomes. Journal of Sport Psychology, 6: 422-429.
Scanlan, T.K., & Lewthwait, R. (1986). Social psychological aspects of competition for male youth sport participants: Ⅳ. Predictors of enjoyment. Journal of Sport Psychology, 8: 25-35.
Scanlan, T,L., Stein, G.L., & Ravizza, K. (1989). An in-depth study of former elite figure skaters: Sources of enjoyment. Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology, 11: 452-457.
Seifrize, J.J., Duda, J.L., & Chi, L. (1992). The relationship of perceived motivational climate to intrinsic motivation and beliefs about success in basketball. Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology, 14: 375-391.
Smoll, F.L., & Smith, R.E. (1988). Reducing stress in youth sport: Theory and application. In F.L. Smoll, R.A. Magill, & M.J. Ash (Eds), Children in sport (pp. 229-249). Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics.
Walling, N.D., Duda, J.L., & Chi, L. (1993). The perceived motivational climate in sport questionnaire: Construct and predictive validity. Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology, 15: 172-183.
White, S.A., Duda, J.L., & Hart, S. (1992). An exploratory examination of the parent-initiated motivational climate questionnaire. Perceptual and Motor Skill, 75: 875-880.
White, S.A., & Duda, J.L. (1993). The relationship between goal orientation and parent-initiated motivational climate among children learning a physical skill. Paper Presented at the 8th world meeting for the International Society for Sport Psychology. Lisbon. Portugal.
White, S.A., & Duda, J.L. (1994). The relationship of gender, level of sport involvement, and participation motivation to goal orientations. International Journal of Sport Psychology, 25: 4-18.
White, S.A. ( 1996 ). Goal orientation and perceptions of the motivational climate initiated by parents.。Pediatric Exercise Science, 8: 122-129.
Vealey, R.S., & Campbell, J.L. (1988). Achievement goals adolescent figure skaters: Impact on self-confidence, anxiety, and performance. Journal of Adolescent Research, 3: 227-243.
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