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研究生:劉自強
研究生(外文):Tzu-Chiang Liu
論文名稱:以限制理論為基礎之專案排程及執行控制研究
論文名稱(外文):The Study of Project Scheduling and Controlling Based on Theory of Constraint
指導教授:李榮貴李榮貴引用關係蔡志弘蔡志弘引用關係
指導教授(外文):Rong-Kwei LiChih-Hung Tsai
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立交通大學
系所名稱:工業工程與管理系
學門:工程學門
學類:工業工程學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:1999
畢業學年度:87
語文別:中文
論文頁數:67
中文關鍵詞:限制理論專案排程專案控制單專案多重專案
外文關鍵詞:Theory of Constrain ( TOC )Project SchedulingProject ControllingSingle ProjectMulti-project
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專案為一有明確目的、生命週期及特殊性的為了完成特定目標的組織活動。專案工作排程的方法自要徑法及計畫評核術之後,發展至今已有數十年的基礎,PERT/CPM利用網路圖的技術,將專案中的要徑求出,根據專案中的要徑來排每一個工作的排程,對於專案中資源的衝突都假設資源充分供應的情況。現今專案愈趨於複雜化,專案的工作排程不只要考慮工作間的前、後置關係,還要將資源限制及專案中的不確定因素考慮在內。專案的不確定因素包括專案工作路徑的變異、會合路徑的變異以及一些人為的因素(如學生症候群、多重工作現象、不會提早將工作完成報告出來),而PERT/CPM所發展的專案排程及控制方法常忽略不確定因素考慮的影響,使得專案排程在執行時並不能提供一準時的完工時間。本研究將以限制理論為基礎,將不確定因素考慮在專案排程內,推導出單專案及多重專案的排程與執行控制的方法。
再者,針對排除專案中資源的競爭問題,已有很多最佳的專案排程方法被使用,本研究將使用一資源限制下專案排程最佳解方法(ACTIM),求得一專案資源限制下之最佳排程,並將其與限制理論專案排程結合,利用程式模擬實際專案執行情況,並與一般任意專案資源競爭下之排程相比較,分析專案執行結果,以作為限制理論專案排程是否需先費力求得專案最短排程的依據。本研究專案排程模擬結果,專案最短排程對於工期為偏態機率函數(如Lognormal)時,其工期及會合路徑的變異性大,因而吸收最短排程所節省之排程規劃時間,從模擬結果中可看出並未增加限制理論專案執行的效率。
A project can be defined as a specific, finite, and unique task with a well-defined purpose and life cycle. Project scheduling methods have been developing for decades since the PERT/CPM technology of network. PERT/CPM focus on critical path of project. Every project''s job is arranged in project scheduling according to the Critical Path. The PERT/CPM assumption of infinite capacity solved resource contention problem. Now the project is more complex. Project scheduling is not only considering relation with the jobs between forward and backward position on scheduling. But also be considered something about resource contention problem, project path variability, variability of the path merged point and some working behaviors ( example student syndrome、 multiple tasking、early report etc. ). PERT/CPM have neglected to do with these uncertainties in the project scheduling and controlling. Thus, project scheduling executed failed to provide realistic completion dates.
In the past, the scholars had written a lot of articles about find the optimum project scheduling on resource limited. The study will based on Theory of Constrain ( TOC ) to add uncertainty in project scheduling and then develop a scheduling method for single project and multi-project. Furthermore, there are many methods exploring optimum scheduling regarding the resource contention problem in project scheduling. The study will use a method that can find the optimum project scheduling under resource limited. And then, the study finds common another project scheduling. Combined they with TOC project scheduling method. We use computer program to simulate the actually condition of executing project scheduling. The study will compare optimum with common result of scheduling simulations. The report can provide people with decision standard when they used TOC project scheduling. We find that optimum project scheduling used skew distribution of task duration. The skew distribution has more variability of task duration and merged path. It attracts optimum scheduling reduce time. In the process, it tells us that optimum project scheduling doesn''t make TOC project scheduling more efficient.
第一章、緒論
1.1研究動機…………………………………………………… 1
1.2 研究目的……………………………………………………3
1.3 研究問題與範圍……………………………………………4
1.4 研究方法與架構……………………………………………5
第二章、文獻探討
2.1 PERT/CPM專案排程方法……………………………………7
2.2 PERT/CPM資源限制下專案最短排程方法…………………9
2.3 PERT/CPM專案排程的問題…………………………………12
2.4 限制理論……………………………………………………20
第三章、以限制理論為基礎解決專案排程問題
3.1 專案的不確定因素…………………………………………23
3.1.1過多安全保護時間加入…………………………………23
3.1.2安全時間被浪費…………………………………………24
3.1.3專案排程現況樹…………………………………………27
3.2以限制理論解決單專案排程問題………………………… 32
3.2.1解決單專案排程問題構想………………………………32
3.2.2以限制理論規劃單專案排程的步驟……………………44
3.3 以限制理論解決多專案排程的問題………………………47
3.3.1 多重專案環境探討…………………………………… 47
3.3.2以DBR解決多重專案排程問題………………………… 51
第四章、最短要鏈與一般要鏈對限制理論專案排程的影響
4.1專案實驗的設計…………………………………………… 55
4.2ACTIM專案對短排程…………………………………………57
4.3程式模擬分析……………………………………………… 58
第五章、結論與未來研究方向
5.1結論………………………………………………………… 64
5.2 未來研究方向………………………………………………64
參考文獻………………………………………………………… 66
1.張文貴、吳國偉著,「資源可替換性的專案排成之研究」,東海學報38 卷,民國八十六年七月,149-173頁。
楊維楨著,「資源限制專案計畫最短排程之研究」,工程學刊,1986年 5月,11-15頁
2.李紹遠著,「資源限制專案計畫排程問題之研究」,淡江大學七十五年 碩士論文,36-40頁。
3.劉馨隆著,「專案投資組合及其時程與資源歸劃之研究」,中央大學土 木工程研究所八十三年碩士論文,73-78頁。
4.許光華、何文榮著,「專案管理理論與實務」,華泰書局八十七出版, 305-318頁。
5.Adedeji B. Badiru, "Towards the Standardization of Performance Measures for Project Scheduling Heuristics," IEEE Transactions of Engineering Management, Vol. 35, No. 2, May, pp.82-89, 1988.
6.Adedeji B. Badiru and P. Simin Pulat, "Comprehensive Project Management, Integrating Optimization Models, Management Principle and Computer," Prentice Hall Press, 1995.
7.Chih-Hung Tsai and Rong-Kwei Li, "Four-Stage Scheduling Method Based on Capacity Constaint Resource, " Journal of the Chinese Institute of Industrial Engineers, Vol.14, No. 3, pp.305-317, 1997.
8.Deng-Maw Tsai, "Multi-project Scheduling Under Resource Constraints: Performance Evaluation and Application of Heuristic Rules," Journal of Technology, Vol. 11, No. 4,pp.547-562, 1996.
9.Dale F. Cooper, "Heuristics for Scheduling Resource Constrained Projects: An Experimental Investigation," Management Science, Vol. 22, No. 11, pp.1186-1194, 1976.
10.Demmy, W.S., and Petrini, A.B., "The Theory of Constraints: A New Weapon for Depot Maintenance Planning and Control, " Air Force Journal of Logistics,No.4, 6-11. (1992).
11.Eliyahu M. Goldratt, "Critical Chain," The North River Press, 1997.
12.Eliyahu M. Goldratt, and Cox, J., "The Goal",North River Press, Inc. (1992).
13.Eliyahu M. Goldratt, " Project Management the TOC Way," The North River Press, 1998.
14.Edward W. Davis and James H. Patterson, " A Comparison of Heuristic and Optimum Solutions in Resource-Constrained Project Scheduling," Management Science, Vol. 21, No. 8, pp.944-955, 1975.
15.Ed D. Walker Ⅱ, CPIM, James F. Cox Ⅲ, CFPIM, Paul H. Pittman, CFPIM, " Identifing Problem in Multiple Project Management Using Goldratt''s Current Reality Tree," International Conference Proceedings, 1997.
16.Huan-Neng Chiu and Deng-Maw Tsai, "A Comparison of Single-project and Multi-project Approaches in Resource-constrained Multi-project Scheduling Problems," Journal of the Chinese Institute of Industrial Engineers, Vol.10, No. 3, pp.171-179, 1993.
17.Lawrence P. Leach, " The Critical Chain Project Managers'' Fieldbook, " Quality Systems 1997.
M. Khattab and F. Choobineh, "A New Heuristic for Project 18.Scheduling with A Single Resource Constraint," Computers Industrial Engineering. Vol. 20, No. 3, pp.381-387, 1991.
19.Jeffrey Elton and Justin Roe, "Bringing Discipline to Project Management," Harvard Business Review, pp.153-159, March - April, 1998.
20.Rainer Kolisch, "Efficient Priority Rules for the Resource-Constrained Project Scheduling Problem," Journal of Operations Management, pp. 179-192, 1996.
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