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研究生:蔡佳如
研究生(外文):Ja-Ju Tsai
論文名稱:從「區位理論」探討網路電子報對台灣新聞媒體產業之影響─由閱聽人資源角度分析之
論文名稱(外文):The Impacts of Electronic Newspaper on Taiwan''''s News Media - A Niche Analysis
指導教授:李秀珠李秀珠引用關係
指導教授(外文):Shu-Chu Li
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立交通大學
系所名稱:傳播所
學門:傳播學門
學類:一般大眾傳播學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:1999
畢業學年度:87
語文別:中文
論文頁數:158
中文關鍵詞:電子報閱聽人滿足感組織生態學區位區位寬度區位重疊度區位優勢新聞媒體產業
外文關鍵詞:electronic newspaperaudience gratificationorganizational ecologynicheniche breadthniche overlapniche superioritythe news media industry
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網際網路逐漸普及下電子報的出現使閱聽人變得更加主動,也使得各媒體間的競爭態勢產生變化。本研究從新媒體發展易受到環境變動影響的角度下,採取組織生態學中的「區位(niche)理論」探討網路電子報與傳統的報紙、電視新聞三大新聞媒體族群在目前如何運用閱聽人資源以維持生存與發展。
本研究以Dimmick(1985)所發展的三個區位指標-區位寬度(niche breadth)、區位重疊度(niche overlap)以及區位優勢(niche superiority)來分析三族群所獲得的消費者的滿足感之差異,藉此判斷各族群之發展方向及族群間的競爭態勢。
在研究方法上,研究者採取問卷調查法,以同時使用三種新聞媒體之15歲以上人口為調查對象,於1998年7月間以非隨機配額抽樣方式進行,在各大電腦量販電尋找合適對象做調查,最後總計回收有效問卷407份,有效回收率為89.65%。
透過統計資料分析發現,閱聽人在使用這三種媒體上主要有六大滿足獲得因素,分別是「認知取向」、「情感取向」、「方便/互動取向」、「成本效益取向」、「反應真實取向」以及「共享性」資源。從「區位」的角度來看,這六個因素代表三種媒體所依賴的閱聽人資源區位面向。
以區位理論的三項指標來分析三媒體資源使用狀況發現,在區位寬度指標中,以網路電子報之區位寬度值最高,且三組群目前都處於「廣佈種(generalist)」狀態,報紙最為依賴「反應真實取向」資源,電視新聞媒體最為依賴「情感取向」資源。
而區位重疊度描述族群使用資源的重複程度,透過分析發現,在資源競爭上還是以兩大傳統新聞媒體之間的競爭最為激烈,兩族群產品對消費者來說傾向替代品。報紙與網路電子報之競爭程度居中,而電子報與電視新聞的在資源使用的重複程度上最弱,兩者對消費者來說比較傾向互補品。
結合區位重疊與區位優勢值可判定兩族群時何者佔有優勢,何者可能被淘汰。分析結果發現在新聞媒體整體發展上,報紙優於電視新聞。而網路電子報雖然佔有比較優勢,但由於資源使用上與傳統兩大媒體的重複程度不高,推估它是朝兩媒體倚賴使用較少的區位面向上發展,找尋一個合適的生存利基,因此在目前來說並未對傳統媒體形成強烈威脅。
Unlike media economists, organizational ecologists define market competition by the use of resources, so when two organizations are utilizing the same resources, they are competing against each other. According to organizational ecology, the impact from environments is much greater than that from the internal operation of an organization; thus, the factor which determines organizational survival is not the efficiency of its operation, but rather the appropriateness of an organization with its environment. The key to understanding the fitness of an organization with its environments is the niche theory. Niche is the resources utilizing pattern of an organization. Adopting the niche theory, this study analyzes the competition among the three news media- television news, electronic newspapers, and traditional newspapers- to understand how market competition influences the resource utilization patterns of the three media in Taiwan.
According to Dimmick(1993), the three most important resources in media industries are media content, advertising income, and audience. By examining the uses of the three resources, researches will understand the competition advantages among the media. This study measures audience re reader perceptions about their need satisfaction provided by the three news media to analyze the competitive relationships among the media. A convenience sampling with 407 valid questionnaires was conducted to examine the level of perceived gratification provided by the three media. Data analysis shows that the strongest competition exists between traditional newspapers and television news, and that television news and electronic news are more complementary than competing with each other. More findings are discussed in the paper.
中文摘要
英文摘要
誌 謝
目 錄
表格目錄
圖表目錄

第一章 緒論
第一節 研究背景
一、 傳播產業之變動
二、 傳播理論之變動
三、 目前之電子報相關研究
四、 研究範圍之界定
第二節 理論依據
第三節 研究目的
第二章 文獻探討
第一節 網路電子報發展概況
一、 網路電子報發展歷史
二、 網路電子報發展現況
三、 網路電子報特性
四、 電子報的批評
第二節 組織生態學
一、 生態學理論發展
二、 生態學之特質
三、 族群與環境之關係
第三節 區位理論
一、 區位定義
二、 基礎區位、實現區位
三、 區位寬度
四、 區位重疊
五、 區位優勢
第四節 區位理論之相關研究
第五節 閱聽人滿足與區位理論之關係
第三章 研究設計與研究方法
第四章 研究發現與討論
第一節 受訪者人口特徵描述
一、 整體信度分析
二、 整體人口資料分析
第二節 媒體族群之閱聽人資源
一、 資源之確認
二、 六大區位面向描述
三、 各新聞媒體族群實際依賴之閱聽人資源
第三節 由區位理論分析三媒體之競爭
一、 區位寬度
二、 區位重疊度
三、 區位優勢
第四節 網路電子報之使用情形
一、 最常接觸之網路電子報網站
二、 閱讀網路電子報之地點
三、 使用網路及網路電子報經驗
四、 閱讀網路電子報之頻率
五、 電子報閱讀情況對閱聽人使用滿足感之影響
第五章 結論與建議
第一節 研究結果
第二節 研究貢獻
第三節 研究限制與未來方向建議
一、 研究缺失與可改進處
二、 未來方向建議
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報章雜誌
142. 王俊成(1998/5/20)《微軟虛擬獨佔,衝擊電子商務》,中國時報時論廣場。
143. 冉亮(1998)《追誹聞如坐雲霄飛車,美媒體表現評價兩極》,新聞鏡,484期,p.12-15。
144. 朱淑娟(1998/11/29)《台灣網路族,達220萬人-女性佔總數四成二,30至39歲成長最快》,聯合報,生活版。
145. 朱淑娟(1998/11/29)《台灣網路族達220萬人-女性佔總數四成二,30至39歲成長最快》,聯合報生活版
146. 江聰明(1998/12/29)《利多刺激,新聞專業頻道看好-自製戲劇,大型綜藝看誣陷,娛樂新聞有線最八卦》,聯合報,影視廣場26版。
147. 吳怡靜(1997)《伯納斯李(Tim Berners-Lee, WWW發明人)-我不要專利》,天下雜誌,205:210-215。台北。
148. 培伊研究中心(1998)網路電子新聞使用調查報告,美國洛杉磯。引自褚盧生(1998/6/12)《統計顯示上網閱讀電子新聞的人士越來越多》。中央社新聞。
149. 許瑋倩,楊文徵(1998)《新聞倫理再出發-來自多元價值與大眾文化挑戰研討會紀實》,新聞鏡,491期,p.36-42。
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152. 劉靜宜(1998/5/13)《葛洛夫旋風的真正啟示,創新而非獨佔》,中國時報時論廣場。
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網路資源
157. 石依華(1998/10/21)《台灣地區上網人口直逼240萬》[Online] http://www.pchome.com.tw
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159. 張秋蓉(1998/9/24),《網站業者朝門戶大站發展》,工商時報。亦見於[Online]http://206.66.211.210/commerce/0924/opro/87092405.htm
160. 陳曉莉(1998/4/3)《PC home線上集團將在今年成型,3個頻道欲突破電腦領域》[Online] http://www.pchome.com.tw
161. 彭玫瑜(1998/4/3)《中時電子報總經理與社長走馬上任,網站改版加入英文新聞》[Online] http://www.pchome.com.tw
162. 彭玫瑜(1998/6/3)《電子時報網站將開始收費》[Online] http://www.pchome.com.tw
163. 彭玫瑜(1998/9/23)《PC home Onlin將建立資訊超商,10月1日Todo新網站上線》,PC home電腦報。[Online] http://www.pchome.com.tw
164. 蕃薯藤網路調查網(1998)《台灣97網路使用調查活動-97台灣網路使用調查結果統計》[Online] http://taiwan.yam.org.tw/survey/survey97/result.htm
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166. Fitzgerald, M. (1997/2/16). 68%of news web sites generate own content: results of new survey announced at conference. Editor & Publisher Interaction Conference Daily News [Online] http://www.mediainfo.com/ephome/interactive97/stories/021597c3.html
167. Hoffman, D. L., Novak, T. P. (1996). New Metrics for New Media: Toward the Development of Web Measurement Standards. [Online] http://www2000.ogsm.vanderbilt.edu/novak/web.standards/webstand.html
168. Internet Advising Bureau(1998):《標題式廣告仍是主流》。[Online] http://www.eurekais.com.tw/netwatching/current.html
169. Internetnews.com (1998/9/10) "Web addresses used in 19% of TV commercials study finds." [Online] http://www.internetnews.com or http://www.newsbytes.com/pubnews/117701.html
170. Kane, Margaret (1998/3/5) "CEOs say their search engines aren''''t for sale." [Online] http://www5.zdnet.com/zdnn/content/zdnn/0305/291975.html
171. Lorrie A. (1992) "The electronic newspaper of the future: rational, design, and implications." [Online] http://cec.wustl.edu/~cs142/articles/misc/publishing/electronic_newspapers
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173. Orr, Andrea (1998/6/9) "NBC joins with CNET in a marriage of media resources." [Online] http://www.techserver.com/
174. Peacock, James (1998/5/25) "Guest column: web measurement needs quality data." [Online] http://www.adage.com/interactive/articles/19980525/article1.html
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179. Stone, Martha L. (1998/5/8). "ZDNN launches Monday" [Online] http://www.zdnet.com/zdnn/content/zdnn/0508/315084.html
180. Stone, Martha L. (1998/8/13). "Online newspaper starting to feel the crunch." [Online] http://www.zdnet.com
181. Walters, Alison(1996) "An alaysis of purposes and forms of personal homepages on the world wide web." MIT. [Online] http://tranquility.mit.edu/alison/thesis.heml
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