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研究生:朱建全
研究生(外文):Jiann Chyuan Ju
論文名稱:機車駕駛者面臨交通衝突之行為反應研究
論文名稱(外文):The Driving Maneuver Response to Traffic Conflicts for Motorcyclists
指導教授:張新立張新立引用關係
指導教授(外文):Hsin Li Chang
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立交通大學
系所名稱:運輸工程與管理系
學門:運輸服務學門
學類:運輸管理學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:1999
畢業學年度:87
語文別:中文
論文頁數:94
中文關鍵詞:交通衝突駕駛行為機車駕駛者操控行為反應
外文關鍵詞:Traffic ConflictsDriving Behaviormotorcyclistmaneuver response
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汽機車混合是我國道路交通車流之一大特色,其間也隱藏著汽機車行進間彼此干擾所造成之行車安全威脅。機車由於缺乏堅硬外殼保護,在交通事故中往往造成嚴重之傷亡,是現有道路使用者中極為脆弱的一群。在改善道路交通秩序與提升交通安全之工作中,如何提升機車之行車安全實為首要之課題,而其間又以了解機車駕駛者在交通車流中所面臨之交通衝突型態及其所採取之因應對策最為重要。基於上述理由,本研究乃嘗試探討機車駕駛人在面臨不同交通衝突情況時,所採取之因應駕駛對策,以供未來研擬機車相關交通安全措施之參考。
本研究首先建立機車駕駛人面臨交通衝突時之行為反應的理念架構,並依據該理念架構建立機車駕駛人面臨不同交通衝突情境及衝突刺激時之駕駛行為反應模式。本研究所考慮的刺激變數包括剩餘時間資源(TTC, Time To Collision)與障礙物寬度,並將駕駛者對交通衝突之危險感受視為干擾變數納入分析。基於實證研究之需要,本研究首先定義各變數之衡量方法,並透過實驗安排機車行進間之交通衝突情況,在市區道路上攝影取得機車駕駛人之操控車輛行為反應,最後再利用影像拮取技術記錄機車駕駛人之加減速資料及行駛方向改變量,以進行模式假設之檢定。
研究結果顯示機車駕駛者在面臨交通衝突時,如有安全顧慮則會先採取煞車減速動作,隨後才會採取偏移動作以避開衝突障礙。感受到危險的機車駕駛者比未感受到衝突危險的駕駛者需要較久的判斷思考及處理交通衝突之時間,且在進行偏移動作時也會與前車保持較為安全的時間間距。本研究亦發現機車駕駛者受到交通衝突刺激而產生的感受對機車駕駛行為具很大的影響,未來車流研究、安全模擬分析及實證資料收集上均不可忽視機車駕駛者的危險感受。
There are numerous motorcycles in Taiwan. It brings the special mixed traffic flow to Taiwan. In order to assess the traffic safety for the traffic operation strategies in Taiwan, it is really important to insight the driving maneuver behavior of motorcyclists when they encounter the traffic conflicts. This study is undertaken to explore the reaction of motorcyclists as facing the traffic conflicts based on the established conceptual framework and experimental survey.
Motorcyclists’ maneuver responses are described by a 2-phase behavior. A model that describes the relationship between the stimulus of traffic conflicts and driving maneuver reactions is then established based on the developed conceptual framework. The stimulus variables include TTC(Time To Collision) and the width of obstacle. The perception of danger for motorcyclists is also included as intermediate variable. The reactions of driving maneuver for motorcyclists as facing traffic conflicts are defined by deceleration (or acceleration) rates and the changes of driving direction. Furthermore, in order to meet the motorcyclists’ acute perception to driving environment, an experiment was designed to collect the required data over the potential traffic conflict area by 12mm camera recording.
The study results show the motorcyclists feeling unsafe will intuitively take deceleration as prime maneuver at the first phase, and then take sideways movement as avoidance maneuver at the second phase. Motorcyclists who feel the conflicts are dangerous will need more decision time or processing time before sideways movement than who doesn’t feel dangerous, and keep longer time headway when sideways moving. The study results indicate the perception of conflicting danger will significantly affect the motorcyclists’ driving behavior. Relevant traffic-flow studies, safety-assessing programs and experiment investigations should not ignore motorcyclists’ perception of danger.
第一章 緒論1
1.1研究背景與動機1
1.2研究目的2
1.3研究範圍與內容3
1.4研究方法與流程5
第二章 文獻回顧7
2.1事故與交通衝突7
2.2微觀車流理論與駕駛外顯行為模式9
2.3緊急情境下的閃避行為10
2.4駕駛心理行為模式12
2.5交通衝突與交通衝突指標14
2.6小結18
第三章 機車衝突行為系統分析19
3.1機車駕駛行為系統分析19
3.1.1道路環境中的駕駛行為系統19
3.1.2影響機車駕駛行為特性異於汽車駕駛者的因素22
3.2面臨衝突時之駕駛行為心理層面分析25
3.2.1由一般駕駛行為之駕駛心理觀察衝突行為25
3.2.2機車衝突行為之二階段觀點26
3.3簡單衝突情境之界定27
3.3.1簡單衝突情境之基本假設27
3.3.2界定衝突行為的開始與結束30
3.4預定簡化觀察的刺激條件31
第四章 外顯動作層面分析33
4.1減速動作使用動機與動作量33
4.1.1可容忍的剩餘時間資源TTCa分析34
4.1.2減速比分析36
4.2偏移動作使用動機與動作量37
4.3衝突行為類型分析38
4.3.1自動反應動作之動作內容41
4.3.2謹慎決策行為之影響因素與動作量41
4.4衝突刺激量與動作反應量之量測定義42
4.4.1「剩餘時間資源TTC」之量測定義42
4.4.2「所需偏移之最小寬度W」之量測定義43
4.4.3減速率DR、偏向位移率LSD之定義43
4.4.4「駕駛者的危險感受E」之量測方法46
4.5小結46
第五章 實證機車衝突行為之實驗設計48
5.1實證需要考慮的因素48
5.2實驗設計49
5.2.1目的49
5.2.2受試人員49
5.2.2地點49
5.2.3實驗流程50
5.3資料轉換51
5.3.1影帶資料轉換為電子資料之流程51
5.3.2軌跡點圖程式之功能說明53
5.4實驗後記54
第六章 機車衝突行為模式實證分析56
6.1以二階段觀察機車駕駛行為56
6.2實驗資料概述58
6.2.1樣本資料摘要58
6.2.2感受反應時間與判斷思考時間59
6.2.3「感受到危險E」與衝突刺激61
6.3減速動作61
6.3.1減速比分析62
6.3.2可容忍之剩餘時間資源TTCa分析63
6.4偏向位移動作65
6.4.1第一階段65
6.4.2第二階段66
6.5小結67
第七章 結論與建議69
7.1結論69
7.2建議70
參考文獻73
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