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研究生:楊順豪
研究生(外文):Shun-Hao Yang
論文名稱:極微濾薄膜去除天然有機物操作效能之探討
論文名稱(外文):The Removal of Natural Organic Matters in Surface Water by the Nanofiltration Membrane Process
指導教授:陳重男陳重男引用關係
指導教授(外文):Jong-Nan Chen
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立交通大學
系所名稱:環境工程所
學門:工程學門
學類:環境工程學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:1999
畢業學年度:87
語文別:中文
論文頁數:134
中文關鍵詞:極微過濾天然有機物疏水性親水性滲流率
外文關鍵詞:nanofiltration (NF )natural organic matters (NOMs)hydrophobichydrophilicpermeability
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本研究之主要目的在探討極微濾薄膜去除天然有機物之操作效能。其中,探討各種操作變因如回收率、壓力、 濃度、離子強度及pH值等之影響,也選擇不同薄膜材質對親疏水性有機物進行定濃度過濾實驗,希望藉由操作因子與薄膜材質的探討瞭解極微濾薄膜的操作性能。另外,針對不同地區水廠水質特性選擇適當的薄膜材質與操作條件,並評估極微濾薄膜在實廠應用之整體效能。
研究結果顯示,在主要控制因子為回收率、壓力、濃度、離子強度及pH值中,當操作壓力從70psi提高到100psi時,對腐植酸去除率提高較為明顯,且隨操作壓力增加,滲流率衰減減少。對進流濃度而言去除率隨著濃度升高而升高,滲流率衰減增加。至於改變回收率、離子強度及pH值方面去除率則差異不大。
從親疏水性水樣之定濃度操作實驗顯示,聚丙烯(PP,DK1812)薄膜對疏水性有機物種之處理效果較好,而磺化聚風(SPS,ASP50)、聚醯胺(PA,ATF 60)材質則對親水性有機物之處理較好。且一般滲流率的衰減隨著水樣之疏水性越強越嚴重。
在實際原水操作結果發現,明德及寶山淨水廠水體有機物以疏水性為主,以DK1812薄膜處理較佳。而澄清湖淨水廠水體有機物則以親水性為主,以ASP50及ATF60薄膜處理較佳。整體而言,以極微濾薄膜處理對天然有機物、濁度、色度有極佳之去除效果(約70%~93.3%),而對TDS、NH3-N、導電度亦有去除效果(約30% ~ 60%)。
The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of operational parameters such as ,recovery, pressure, concentration ,ionic strength and pH value, on the rejection rate and permeability of nanofiltration membranes for removing natural organic matters. Also, three types of membranes were chosen in this study to evaluate the performance of membrane by investigating operational parameters and materials .
Experimental results showed that the efficiency of humic acid reduction was mainly affected by operating pressure, when the pressure was increased from 70 psi to 100 psi, the reduced efficiency of humic acid and the decline of membrane permeability decreased. In addition, the removal efficiency of humic acids increased with an increasing of influent concentration. To study the effect of pH value and ionic strength on the removal of humic acid by membrane filtration, it was found that the difference between pH4 to pH9 and ionic strength of 0.005m to 0.0117m was insignificant. As for recovery, the removal was not affected.
Nanofiltration experiments conducted with a constant influent concentration of NOM indicated that the DK 1812 membrane has better removal efficiency for removing hydrophobic NOM than hydrophilic NOM; the ASP 50 and ATF 60 membranes have better removal efficiency for hydrophilic NOM . The decline of flux rate increases with increasing hydrophobic characteristics.
When the nanofiltration technique was applied in Ming-te and Pao-shan Water Treatment Plants, it was found that the major NOM is hydrophobic. Hence the DK1812 membrane gives a better performance in removing hydrophobic NOM for these two plants. The major composition of water sample collected from Chengching Lake Water Treatment Plants is hydrophilic. It understood that the ASP50 and ATF 60 membranes are suitable for this water sample. In conclusion, the effects of operating parameters on the removing efficiency of NOM has been studied in this research. The results reveal that the nanofiltration is a desirable method for NOM, turbidity, and color (among 73% and 93.3%)of water samples collected from Water treatment plants. In addition, it is profitable to remove TDS and NH3-N(among 30% and 60%).
第一章 前言1
1.1研究緣起1
1.2研究內容3
第二章 文獻回顧5
2.1水體存在之有機物及其物化特性5
2.1.1水體有機物來源及其負面影響5
2.1.2有機物的組成及特性7
2.1.3自然有機物之親、疏水性特性9
2.1.4水體中各類有機物種之物理、化學特性10
2.1.5親、疏水性自然有機物對淨水單元程序之影響14
2.2薄膜處理程序16
2.2.1 薄膜種類與分類16
2.2.2極微濾薄膜18
2.2.2極微濾薄膜之特性19
2.2.2.1 極微濾薄膜法之原理20
2.2.2.2極微濾薄膜之影響因子22
2.2.2.3極微濾薄膜材質的形式27
2.2.3薄膜使用的限制與缺點30
2.2.3.1薄膜操作面臨的問題32
2.2.3.1.1膠體阻塞32
2.2.3.1.2有機物阻塞32
2.2.3.1.3積垢32
2.2.3.1.4生物阻塞33
2.2.3.1.5阻塞指數33
2.2.3.2薄膜之處理34
2.2.3.2.1薄膜之清洗34
2.2.3.2.2出流水的水質穩定性35
2.2.4 薄膜與傳統淨水方式比較及其應用36
2.2.5 薄膜處理親疏水性有機物37
2.2.6 薄膜處理技術於前驅物質控制之應用39
第三章 實驗方法與設備41
3.1實驗目的41
3.2實驗設備41
3.3實驗藥品42
3.4實驗方法42
3.4.1溶液的配置45
3.5取樣程序46
3.6薄膜系統設備48
第四章 結果與討論52
4.1薄膜基本性質試驗52
4.1.1薄膜的選擇52
4.1.2透水係數的探討54
4.2基本影響因子之探討59
4.2.1回收率效應59
4.2.1.1回收率對去除率的影響59
4.2.1.2回收率對滲流率的影響61
4.2.2操作壓力的效應63
4.2.1.1操作壓力對去除率之影響63
4.2.1.2操作壓力對滲流率之影響65
4.2.3溶液初始濃度的效應68
4.2.2.1溶液初始濃度對去除率之影響68
4.2.2.2溶液初始濃度對滲流率之影響70
4.2.2.3不同壓力與初始濃度之影響73
4.2.4離子強度的效應75
4.2.4.1離子強度對去除率之影響75
4.2.4.2離子強度對滲流率之影響78
4.2.5 pH值的效應81
4.2.5.1 pH值對去除率之影響81
4.2.5.2 pH值對滲流率之影響82
4.2.6 小結85
4.3濾膜材質特性的探討86
4.3.1 濾膜材質對親疏水性有機物去除之影響87
4.3.2 濾膜材質對親疏水性有機物對滲流量之影響92
4.3.3不同薄膜材質及不同pH值之效應95
4.3.4 小結97
4.4實廠測試98
4.4.1實廠原水親疏水性試驗98
4.4.2基本水質分析111
4.4.3薄膜處理對於淨水廠水體去除效能評估118
第五章 結論與建議119
第六章 參考文獻121
附錄128
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