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研究生:林憶田
研究生(外文):Lin, Yi-Tein
論文名稱:土方作業規劃同類資源考量之模擬研究
論文名稱(外文):Simulation of Earthmoving Operation with “Similar Resource” Consideration
指導教授:黃榮堯黃榮堯引用關係
指導教授(外文):Huang, Rong-Yau
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立中央大學
系所名稱:土木工程研究所
學門:工程學門
學類:土木工程學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:1999
畢業學年度:87
語文別:中文
論文頁數:100
中文關鍵詞:土方載運作業規劃電腦模擬同類資源
外文關鍵詞:Earthmoving operationProject planningComputer simulationSimilar resource
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一般而言,土方工程是一切工程的基礎,近年來,北二高、南二高工程陸續的發包開工,由於土方量動輒上百萬方,加上機具需求量大,工期長,因此良好的土方載運規劃便顯得非常重要。傳統土方載運的規劃較少考量到同類型但工作能力不同、成本不同的資源(同類資源),如容量為7m3的卡車與15m3的卡車、膠輪式的刮運機與履帶式的刮運機、挖斗為1.53m3與挖斗2.35m3的挖土機等等。此外,傳統的土方工程規劃也較少針對機具等待閒置或利用率的問題,使得推估出來的工期與成本不但未能反應現場可能發生的狀況,尤其當土方數量大的時候,與實際狀況的落差更是明顯。
本研究以電腦模擬為基礎,考量影響土方載運的主要因素,如挖土機挖斗的大小、土方的數量、滾動阻力和斜坡阻力、土壤的種類、載運的距離等等。設計一套有系統的土方載運的模擬模式,模式中考量資源的閒置率、利用率與同類資源的組合選擇,讓管理規劃者能有效的根據現場不同的狀況安排最經濟的資源組合。
本研究之結論可歸納如下:
1.在有資源不限制但工期限制的土方規劃上,考量挖土機之同類資源在不同的距離、工期下皆有顯著的影響。
2.在有資源限制的土方規劃上,若須以最短工期之最經濟組合完成時,考量同類資源能節省土方載運的成本。
Essentially every large civil or building project involves earthmoving operation. It is not atypical for a highway project, for instance, to have to move more than 1,000,000-m3 earth between locations. Several mega projects, such as the second freeway, the high-speed railroad, and the rapid transit railways are currently underway in Taiwan, which all involve the movement of a huge amount of earth. Substantial amount of project cost can be saved with a better planning of the operation.
The earthmoving operation mainly involves the interaction of excavators and hauling trucks, while its efficiency also affected by factors such as the property of the earth, the moving distance, the road conditions, and so on. This research employs computer process simulation technique for the planning and analysis of earthmoving operation especially with the consideration of “similar resources.” Combinations of excavators and trucks with different capacities, performance efficiencies, and other attributes (similar resources) are tested out on a computer model (STROBOSCOPE) to study the significance of considering the “similar resources” in the planning and analysis of the operation. The objectives are to improve the productivity and the cost effectiveness of the earthmoving operation with optimized combinations (numbers and sizes) of excavators and hauling trucks employed in the operation.
目錄I
圖目錄III
表目錄IV
第一章 緒論1
1.1研究動機1
1.2研究目的1
1.3研究內容2
1.4研究範圍2
1.5研究方法與步驟2
1.6論文架構5
第二章 文獻探討6
2.1土方載運相關文獻6
2.2電腦模擬在營建作業相關研究8
2.3施工流程模擬語言的簡介10
2.4同類資源18
第三章 土方作業電腦模型之建立20
3.1土方載運作業特性介紹20
3.1.1土方工程的性質20
3.1.2土方載運施工機械20
3.2土方載運規劃的影響因素21
3.3土方載運施作流程建構27
3.3.1模型的假設27
3.3.2模型的建立28
3.4模型驗證30
3.5時間變數的推估32
第四章 同類資源考量之模擬分析37
4.1模擬案例設計38
4.2資源及工期都不限制的土方載運規劃40
4.3資源不限制但工期限制的土方載運規劃42
4.4資源限制的土方載運規劃55
4.5考慮大型土方機具之模擬64
第五章 結論與建議71
5.1結論71
5.2建議74
參考文獻76
附錄一 電腦模擬簡介80
附錄二 載運速率公式的證明87
附錄三 土方載運STROBOSCOPE程式碼89
一、中文部份
1. 中國土木水利工程學會出版委員會,「土木施工」,科技圖書,1997
2. 王萬枝,「帷幕牆施工自動化作業改善與模擬分析」,碩士論文,國立台灣工業技術學院工程技術研究所營建工程技術研究所,1996
3. 朱憾湘,「鋼構作業電腦模擬分析之研究」, 碩士論文,國立台灣工業技術學院工程技術研究所營建工程技術研究所,1993
4. 吳啟榮,「電腦模擬於營建工程專案排程之應用」, 碩士論文,國立台灣大學土木研究所,1996
5. 林景琪,「營建作業系統模擬分析之研究」,碩士論文,國立台灣工業技術學院工程技術研究所營建工程技術研究所,1990
6. 郭俊延,「營建作業電腦化模擬之研究」,碩士論文,國立台灣工業技術學院工程技術研究所營建工程技術研究所,1990
7. 黃榮堯,「大處著眼、小處著手─施工作業流程電腦模擬規劃分析」,營建管理季刊,36,pp.38-48,1998年九月。
8. 楊建中,盧茂林,李志舟,「施工機械」,高立,台北,1996
9. 詹益祥,「提高鋼結構大樓施工速率之研究」,中華民國第一屆營建管理學術研討會論文集,1999,pp.Ⅱ-221-232
10. 吳鴻輝、吳梅寶,「生產系統運作之電腦模擬技術與實例介紹」,工業技術,152,pp.22-43,1987
11. 許天淳,「彈性製造系統─電腦模擬技術」,機械工業,22,pp.46-54,1985
12. 林耘生,「電腦模擬應用在菸酒配銷中心儲運系統之研究」,碩士論文,東海大學食品科學研究所,1996
二、英文部份
1. AbouRizk, Simaan M., Halpin, Daniel W., and Lutz James D., “State of The Art in Construction Simulation”, Proceedings od the 1992 Winter Simulation Conference, Ed. J. Swain, D. Goldsman, R. Crain and J. Wilson., pp.1271-1277
2. AbouRizk, Simaan M., and Dozzi, S. Peter, “ Application of Computer Simu-lation in Resolving Construction Disputes ” ,Journal of Construction Engi-neering and Management, June , 1993, pp.355-373
3. Abraham, Dulcy M., and Halpin, Daniel W., “ Simulation of the construction of cable-stayed bridges ” ,Canadian Journal of Civil Egineering, 1998, pp.490-499
4. Amirkhanian, Serji N., and Baker, Nancy J., “ Expert system for equipment selection for earth-moving operation ” ,Journal of Construction Engineering and Management, June , 1992, pp.318-331
5. Antonio, A. Gonzalez-Quevedo, AbouRizk, Simaan M., Iseley David T., and Halpin, Daniel W., “ Comparision of Two Simulation Methodologies in Con-struction ”, Journal of Construction Engineering and Management, September, 1993, pp.573-589
6. Chang, D.Y., “ RESQUE : A Resourse Based Simulation system for Construc-tion Process Planning ” Ph.D.Dissertation, Department of Civil Engineering, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI, USA, 1986
7. Chehayeb, Nader N., and AbouRizk, Simaan M., “ Simulation-Based Schedal-ing with Continous Activity Relationships ” ,Journal of Construction Engi-neering and Management, March , 1998, pp.107-115
8. Christian, John, and Xie, Tian Xing, “ Improving earthmoving estimating by more realistic knowledge ”, Canadian of Journal Civil Engineering, 1996, pp.250-259
9. Day, David A., and Benjamin, Neal B. H., “ Construction Equipment Guide ” ,John Wiley&Sons, Inc., 1991
10. Halpin, Daniel W., “ CYCLONE-Method for Modeling Job Site Proc-ess ” ,Journal of Construction Division,September, 1977, pp.489-499
11. Halpin, Daniel W., and Riggs, Leland S., “ Planning and analysis of construc-tion operations ” , John Wiley&Sons, Inc., 1992
12. Hoover, Stewart V., “Simulation : Problem - Solving approach”, Addison-Wesley, 1989
13. Huang, Rong-Yau, and Halpin, Daniel W., “ Visual Construction Operation Simulation-The DISCO Approach ” ,Journal of Microcomputers in Civil Engi-neering, 1994, pp.175-184
14. Huang, Rong-Yau, “A Graphical-Based Method for Transient Evaluation of Construction Operations” ,Ph.D. Dissertation, Department of Civil Engineering, Purdue University, West Lafayette, In, USA, 1994 May
15. Kalk, Anthony, “ INSIGHT :Interactive Simulation of Construction Operation using Graphics Techniques ” ,Technical Report No.238 Department of Civil Engineering, Stanford University, 1980
16. Karshenas, Saeed, “ Truck Capacity Selection For Earthmoving ” ,Journal of Construction Engineering and Management, June, 1989, pp.212-227
17. Komatsu Specifications and Application Handbook, 1992
18. Liu, L.Y., “Graphical Object-Oriented Simulation System for Construction Process Modeling ” ,Journal of Computing in Civil Engineering, 1992, pp.1139-1146
19. Martinez, Julio C., “ STROBOSCOPE: State and Resourse Based Simulation of Construction Processes ” ,Ph.D.Dissertation, Department of Civil Engineer-ing, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI, USA, 1996
20. Nunnally, S. W. , “ Construction methods and management ” ,Prentice-Hall, Inc., 1981
21. Paulson, Boyd C., “Computer Application in Construction”, Mcgraw-Hill, Inc., New York, 1995
22. Payne, James A., “Introduction to simulation : programming techniques and methods of analysis, McGraw-Hill, Inc., 1982
23. Pegden, C. D., Shannon, R. E., and Sadowski, R. P., “Introduction to Simula-tion Using SIMAN, McGraw-Hill, Inc., New York, 1991
24. Pidd M., “Computer Simulation in Management Science, John-Wiley and Sons, New York, 1992
25. Pritsker, A. A. B., “Introduction to Simulation and SLAM Ⅱ”, Systems Pub-lishing Corporation, West Lafayette, Indiana, 1986
26. Pritsker, A. A. B., “Simulation with Visual SLAM and AweSim”, Systems Publishing Corporation, West Lafayette, Indiana, 1997
27. Senior, Bolivar A., and Halpin, Daniel W., “ Simplified Simulation System for Construction Projects ”, Journal of Construction Engineering and Management, January , 1998, pp.72-81
28. Shannon, R.E., “Systems Simulation the Art and Science” ,Prentice-Hall ,Englewood Chiffs, New Jersey, 1975
29. Smith, S. D., Osborne, J. R., and Forde, M. C., “ Analysis of earth-moving system using discrete-event simulation ” ,Journal of construction engineering and management, December, 1995, pp.388-396
30. Touran, Ali, “ Integration of simulation with expert system ”,Journal of Con-struction Engineering and Management, 1990, pp.480-493
31. Touran, Ali, and Asai, Toshiyuki, “ Simulation of Tunneling Operation ”, Journal of Construction Engineering and Management, December, 1987, pp.554-569
32. Willenbrock, Jack H., “ Estimating cost of earthwork via simulation ” , Journal of the construction division, 1972, pp.49-60
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