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研究生:沈鴻禧
研究生(外文):Horng-Syi Shen
論文名稱:西藏高原冬季覆雪對東亞夏季季風及全球行星尺度波動影響之模擬研究
指導教授:張隆男張隆男引用關係
指導教授(外文):Long-Nan Chang
學位類別:博士
校院名稱:國立中央大學
系所名稱:大氣物理研究所
學門:自然科學學門
學類:大氣科學學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:1999
畢業學年度:87
語文別:中文
論文頁數:113
中文關鍵詞:東亞夏季季風羅士比波跨赤道波列西藏高原覆雪
外文關鍵詞:east Asian summer monsoonRossby wavecross equatorial wavesnow cover
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摘 要
CCM2控制模擬與ECMWF或其他相關研究結果之比較,在東亞夏季季風區、太平洋以及美洲夏季季風區均大致吻合。總體而言,CCM2在運動場及高度場方面,有可信賴的模擬結果表現。
本篇研究論文,吾人以點冷源之西藏高原覆雪增量為思考的起源,歸納本篇研究論文研究的目的有三:(1)瞭解西藏高原覆雪的增加,對東亞夏季季風產生的影響為何?(2) 瞭解西藏高原覆雪的增加,對全球行星尺度波動產生的影響為何?(3) 瞭解季風環流中,在不同下墊面不同波數領域貢獻又是為何?
藉由控制模擬與降雪模擬之比較,西藏高原覆雪增量並沒有改變東亞夏季季風的特徵,高低層季風環流的特徵,在降雪模擬中,仍顯現出來。吾人認為西藏高原覆雪的增加,透過土壤溼度、地表反照率及融雪所需的輻射能等三個物理機制,影響到大氣環流,而環流的影響亦可分成三方面:
1) 藉由高低層風場,高層高度場及高層渦度場的分析,西藏高原覆雪延遲了東亞夏季季風的建立,約5~10天,影響的範圍為東亞夏季季風區。
2) 跨赤道波列及北極區波列的產生,跨赤道波列產生的機制係為bv效應,大氣係處於非線性(nonlinear)及消散(dissipative)的狀態,影響的區域為南半球高緯度地區,北極區波列影響的範圍為北半球高緯度地區,上述兩組波列主要由波數1-3所組成,而其振幅約為西藏高原反氣旋的1/8。
3) 強迫性的羅士比波,透過流函數場、高度場及運動場等不同氣象變數的分析,均有一致性的波列產生,影響範圍為美洲大陸地區。上述的降雪模擬減去控制模擬之差值,與1998年減去1997年NCEP觀測資料之差值相比較,在遙地波列方面,模擬與觀測資料在北半球中高緯度有相當一致性的結果。
在波數領域分析方面,對東亞地區高層反氣旋而言,全球行星尺度波數1、2和4有較大的正貢獻;對墨西哥反氣旋而言,波數2和4有較大的正貢獻。此外,波數2及波數3的貢獻相反,但波數3的數值比波數2小,波數2的分佈主要是海陸分佈,而在海陸交界面上主要以波數3及波數4為主。CCM2的高層流函數模擬,在不同的波數領域,均掌握了對赤道反對稱及北強南弱的特性。
封面
摘要
致謝
目錄
圖目錄
一、前言
二、模式與模擬策略
2.1 模式介紹
2.2 模式中覆雪扮演的角色
2.3 模擬實驗設計
三、控制模擬結果之比較與討論
3.1 緯向風
3.2 經向風
3.3 流函數和速度位
3.4 高度場
四、降雪實驗設計結果分析
4.1 夏季季平均之流函數與速度位
4.2 夏季季平均之高度場
4.3 夏季季平均之風場
4.4 1997/1998年夏季季平均觀測資料之分析
4.5 夏季季平均之降雨
五、時序分析
5.1 流函數之時序分析
5.2 緯向風場之時序分析
5.3 高度場之時序分析
5.4 1997/98年觀測資料分析
六、討論
七、機制探討
7.1 延遲機制之探討
7.2 跨赤道波列機制之探討
八、結論與展望
8.1 結論
8.2 展望
參考文獻
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