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研究生:任俊儒
論文名稱:利用整合探空系統對不同天氣型態降水之觀測研究
指導教授:林沛練林沛練引用關係
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立中央大學
系所名稱:大氣物理研究所
學門:自然科學學門
學類:大氣科學學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:1999
畢業學年度:87
語文別:中文
論文頁數:117
中文關鍵詞:整合探空系統晴空剖風雷達梅雨鋒面中尺度對流系統賀伯颱風
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台灣位處歐亞大陸與太平洋交界處的亞熱帶地區,天氣與氣候相當多變,加上台灣本島的複雜地形以及海陸分布的作用,許多不同天氣系統皆會為台灣帶來不同型態的降雨。本文利用中央大學整合探空系統配備之強化型地面觀測系統與915MHz剖風雷達的高解析觀測資料,針對春冬季鋒面、梅雨季鋒面、中尺度對流系統及颱風等四種不同天氣型態的降水,討論其降水之運動與物理特性,瞭解不同天氣系統降水型態與結構演變不同生命期之中尺度對流系統伴隨之垂直運動結構以及地面氣象要素的特徵變化。
春末及早冬鋒面帶來的降水多屬層狀降水,融解層上方為降落速度較為緩慢的冰晶,亮帶所在高度回波微幅增強且下方有相當大的垂直速度梯度,亮帶以下水滴的降落速度可達-8∼-9 m/s。不論冰晶或雨滴的回波訊號強度與垂直速度皆有良好的線性關係存在,亮帶則有回波強、垂直速度小的特性。
梅雨季鋒面降水的類型複雜,單一降水事件中常為層狀降水、對流降水和低層暖降水共同存在的情況。強烈對流降水可高達10公里以上,遠超過春冬季鋒面的對流降水;層狀降水的融解層較春冬季鋒面略高。對流降水回波與垂直速度間的線性關係較差,多為垂直速度大、降水回波亦強的情況;低層暖降水的回波與垂直速度間的線性關係相當不錯。
中尺度對流系統降水常為對流性降水伴隨層狀降水或低層降水,較強烈的對流降水後多伴有層狀降水。整合探空系統所觀測之完整的風暴結構初期為伴隨上衝流的強烈對流降水,後期為層狀降水。午後對流是自低層向上發展,在降水開始之前晴空大氣即出現持續的上升運動,顯示良好的對流發展環境有利於午後降水之發生。
整合探空系統的觀測顯示賀伯颱風的中心區域曾經過中壢地區,颱風中心的東西兩側不論風速或回波皆存在相當的差距,顯示地形之效應以使颱風結構出現不對稱之特性。賀伯颱風所帶來的降雨為與層狀降雨夾雜短時間對流降雨的混合性降雨,層狀降雨的初期回波強度偏弱。亮帶高度有高低震盪變化的情況,接近颱風中心時亮帶高度受颱風眼牆結構逐漸靠近影響而升高,和其他天氣型態之層狀降水比較,颱風層狀降水的融解層範圍較廣,亮帶的回波訊號較不集中,這可能是因為降水粒子被高速旋轉的水平風場帶著旋轉而不是直接從高空快速降落的緣故。在賀伯颱風侵襲台灣時整合探空系統觀測到於台灣西部接近颱風中心的弱回波區之結構,並且發現弱回波中的晴空大氣為上升運動。
摘要 …………………………………….…………………………………………… I
致謝 ………………………………………………………..………………………… III
目錄 ………………………………………………………………………..………… IV
圖表說明 …………………………………………………………………………… V
第一章 前言 ……………………………………………………………………….. 1
1.1 研究動機 ………………………………………………………………… 1
1.2 研究回顧 ………………………………………………………………… 3
第二章 整合探空系統 …………………………………………………………….. 6
2.1 整合探空系統簡介 ……………………………………………………… 6
2.2 915MHz晴空剖風雷達觀測原理 ………………………………………. 9
第三章 資料處理與分析方法 …………………………………..…………………. 13
3.1 資料來源 ………………………………………………………………… 13
3.2 雷達原始資料處理方法 ………………………………………..……… 14
3.3 個案選取及分類 ………………………………..……………………… 17
第四章 不同天氣型態降水觀測分析…………………………………………….. 18
4.1 春冬季鋒面 …………………………………………………………….. 18
4.1.1 1997年10月28日個案 …………………………………………. 19
4.2 梅雨季鋒面 …………………………………………………………….. 22
4.2.1 1997年5月17日個案………………………….………………… 23
4.2.2 1997年6月11日個案………………………….………………… 25
4.3 中尺度對流系統………………………………………………………… 28
4.3.1 1997年5月19日個案 ………….……………………………… 29
4.3.2 1996年8月28日個案 ………….……………………………… 31
4.4 賀伯颱風 ………………………………………………..……………… 32
第五章 結論 ……………………………………………………………………… 39
參考文獻 ………………………………………………………………………….. 41
附表 ……………………………………………………………………………….. 47
附圖 ……………………………………………………………………………….. 54
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