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研究生:徐慶松
研究生(外文):Ching-Sung Shiu
論文名稱:在蟲洞式繞徑下的2維tori/meshes網路以及不規則網路中均勻負載的多重群播
論文名稱(外文):Balancing Traffic Load for Multi-Node Multicast in Wormhole 2D Tori/Meshes and Irregular Networks
指導教授:曾煜棋曾煜棋引用關係許健平許健平引用關係
指導教授(外文):Yu-Chee TsengJang-Ping Sheu
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立中央大學
系所名稱:資訊工程研究所
學門:工程學門
學類:電資工程學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:1999
畢業學年度:87
語文別:中文
論文頁數:42
中文關鍵詞:群播多重群播蟲洞式繞徑平行處理meshtorus群集通訊
外文關鍵詞:MulticastMulti-node Multicastwormhole routingparallel processingmeshtoruscollective communicationinterconnection network
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在一個多處理機的電腦網路裡每一個處理器常常會為了某種原因而需要與其他處理器相互通訊交換訊息,因此於處理器之間提供一套有效的通訊方式被認為是高效能計算中最重要的一個部份。在這其中研究最多的部份都是重在於單一一個處理器的廣播(broadcast)或是群播(multicast)。但是在實際的情況中,同時有多個處理器在做廣播或群播的現象所佔的比率也相當大,因此在這篇論文中,我們的重點就是著重於改善因為多重群播 (也就是同時間有任意個sources要將訊息multicast到任意個數目的目的地去)時引起的網路擁擠而造成訊息延遲效應的現象。
在這篇論文裡,我們提出一個在2D torus/mesh蟲洞式繞徑網路中用網路切割 (network partition) 的方式來做到多重群播(Multi-node Multicast)的能力。為了降低在網路中傳輸路徑擁擠的情況,因此在我們的方法中首先是定義出一組相互獨立的DDNs(Data Distributed Networks) 以及DCNs(Data Collection Networks),然後在將這些多重群播重新導向load-balancing到這些獨立的子網路上。在這篇論文中我們提出了幾種定義子網路的方式並且藉由模擬的實驗來驗證我們的方法的確能在某種情況下提供一個不錯的方式來做到多重的群播。
另外,由於電腦技術的快速發展,越來越多人利用高速的交換器與網路設備將多個具有高速計算能力的PC或是工作站連接在一起而提供出一個具有高速計算能力的分散式運算環境,稱之為Network of Workstations (NOWs)。由於我們先前在 tori/meshes 這種較規則的網路裡利用網路切割的方式在單一或是多重的群播中獲的一些經驗,因此我們在這篇論文中運用“網路切割”概念提出一個單一節點廣播的演算法於NOWs這種網路的拓樸架構呈現不規則變化的環境中,且期望能獲的與tori/meshes上相同的成果。

In a multicomputer network, processors often need to communicate with each other for various reasons, such as data exchange and event synchronization. Efficient communication is critical for high-performance computing in MPPs. This is especially true for those collective communication patterns, such as broadcast and multicast, which involve more than one source and/or destination.
This paper considers the multi-node multicast problem in a wormhole-routed 2D torus/mesh, where an arbitrary number of source nodes each intending to multicast a message to an arbitrary set of destinations. To resolve the contention and the congestion problems, we propose to partition the network into subnetworks to distribute, and thus balance, the traffic load among all network links. Several ways to partition the network are explored. Simulation results show significant improvement over existing results for torus and mesh networks.
More recently, high speed switches and network equipment are used to connect high performance PC or workstations to build a high speed and performance distributed computing environment called NOWs(Network of Workstations). From our previous researches, the network partition schemes have some kind of improvements better than others algorithm on some collective communications in regular networks. In this paper we will show how to use the concept of "network partition scheme" on NOWs environment. And we hope that the idea "network partition scheme", will also have some improvement on NOWs environment.

1. Introduction
2. Preliminaries
2.1 Network Model
2.2 Subnetworks of a Wormhole Network
2.3 A General Model for Multi-Node Multicasts
3. Subnetworks of a 2D Torus/Mesh
3.1 DDN's and DCN's in a 2D Torus
3.2 DDN's and DCN's in a 2D Mesh
4. Multi-Node Multicast in a 2D Torus
4.1 Phase 1: Balancing Traffic among DDNs
4.2 Phase 2: Multicasting in DDNs
4.3 Phase 3: Multicasting in DCNs
4.4 Simulation and Performance Comparison
5. Multi-Node Multicast in a 2D Mesh
5.1 Phase 2: Modified Multicasting in DDNs
5.2 Simulation and Performance Comparison
6. Future Work: Reduce the communication latency on NOWs by
Network Partition Theme
6.1 Collection Communication on NOWs :
A Single-Node Broadcast by Network Partition
6.2 Approach 1: Numbering-Based Scheme
6.3 Approach 2: Local-Numbering Based Scheme
6.4 Approach 3: Tree-Level Based Scheme
7. Conclusions

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