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研究生:許裕民
研究生(外文):Yu-Min ,Shiu
論文名稱:雙極性電晶體大訊號模型及其在高頻電路上之應用
論文名稱(外文):The large signal model of Si BJT and it''s application in high frequency circuits
指導教授:詹益仁詹益仁引用關係
指導教授(外文):Yi-Jen ,Chan
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立中央大學
系所名稱:電機工程研究所
學門:工程學門
學類:電資工程學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:1999
畢業學年度:87
語文別:中文
論文頁數:76
中文關鍵詞:雙極性電晶體大訊號模型高頻電路
外文關鍵詞:bipolar junction transistorlarge signal modelhigh frequency circuit
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本論文以經驗性模型為研究方向,在第二章將以我們所購買的雙極性載子電晶體(為惠普公司所生產,產品編號為AT-42000)為例,對矽基板雙極性載子電晶體進行量測並成功的建立了一個矽基板雙極性載子電晶體的高頻大訊號模型(可預測元件行為至10 GHz);此電晶體大訊號模型使用Gummel Poon模型為核心,同時調整模型的等效電路以模擬電晶體於高頻操作下所出現的寄生效應。
接著,在第三章中,我們使用第二章所建立的大訊號模型來設計並製作一個900MHz放大器;並在第四章中,設計並製作一個中心頻率為2.2GHz的壓控振盪器,其模擬結果和實際量測結果有相當不錯的吻合度,因此驗證大訊號模型可以提供設計電路所需要的各種資訊,諸如:I-V、S-參數、P1dB、Pout、輸出功率頻譜、元件實際操作時的動態負載線及輸出等功率線等,而小訊號模型只能提供S-參數,因此使用本文的大訊號模型來進行電路模擬確實可以提高模擬結果的可信度,進而節省電路原型的開發成本與設計時間。
The direction of our research in this thesis is based on the empirical model. In chapter two, some bipolar junction transistors ( AT-42000 ) produced by HP corp. were measured, and the corresponding large signal model for high frequency range was successfully built (predicted up to 10 GHz). Based on the Gummel-Poon model, our large signal model adjusts general equivalent circuit model of bipolar transistors to simulate the parasitic effect of the BJT under high frequency operation.
Then, in chapter three, a 900MHz amplifier was designed and fabricated based on the large signal model that has been built previously in chapter two ; in chapter four, a voltage controlled oscillator centered around 2.2 GHz was designed and realized with measurement results quite match to the simulation results. Therefore, this large signal model can be concluded to provide all kinds of information for circuit designers such as I-V, S-parameters, P1dB, Pout, output power spectrum, dynamic load line, and output power contour while small signal model can only provide S-parameters.
In summary, circuit simulation with the large signal models in the text can exactly enhance the credibility of the simulation procedure such that money cost and time consumption for the development of the prototype circuit can be minimized.
第一章 序言..............................................................................1
1.1 雙極性電晶體的潛力......................................................2
1.2 論文綱要............................................................................2
第二章 雙極性電晶體的大訊號模型及建立......................4
2. 1 雙極性電晶體大訊號模型..............................................4
2.1.1 雙極性電晶體大訊號模型的重要性...........................4
2. 1.2 電晶體大訊號模型的種類...........................................5
2.1.3 未來趨勢..........................................................................8
2. 2 雙極性電晶體大訊號模型的建立.................................8
2.2.1 簡介...................................................................................8
2. 2.2 大訊號模型之建立........................................................9
2.2.3 雙極性電晶體中的電容..............................................12
2. 2.4 完整的大訊號模型......................................................14
2.3 參數的萃取.......................................................................15
2. 3.1 元件的高頻量測和De-embedding..............................15
2.3.2 直流參數的萃取...........................................................17
2. 3.3 接面電容參數的萃取.................................................20
2.3.4 各級寄生電阻的萃取..................................................22
2. 3.5 載子傳輸時間的萃取.................................................24
2.3.6 完整的大訊號模型......................................................26
2.4 MDS和Hspice的比較....................................................27
2.5 低頻雜訊頻譜的量測..................................................28
2.6 結論................................................................................32
第三章 900MHz放大器之研製..........................................36
3. 1 S參數的定義.................................................................36
3.2 微波放大器之設計原理.............................................37
3.2.1 放大器的基本原理...................................................37
3.2.2 穩定性的考量............................................................38
3.2.3 功率增益(Power Gain)...............................................40
3.2.4 阻抗匹配網路(Impedance Matching Network).........43
3.3 900MHz放大器之電路設計........................................44
3.3.1 被動元件等效電路模型的建立..............................45
3.3.2 微波放大器設計流程...............................................46
3.3.3 直流偏壓網路(DC Bias Network).............................47
3.3.4 900MHz放大器製作與量測.....................................48
第四章 電壓控制振盪器之研製........................................53
4.1 Varactor model之建立....................................................53
4.2 VCO模擬設計................................................................56
4.2.1 振盪器的基本原理....................................................56
4.2.2 相位雜訊(Phase Noise)...............................................60
4.2.3 諧振電路.....................................................................62
4.2.4 FR4板子上振盪器電路設計....................................65
4.2.5 氧化鋁基板上振盪器電路設計..............................70
第五章 總結...........................................................................73
參考文獻.................................................................................75
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[2] R.F. Pierret, "Semiconductor Device Fundamentals", Addison Wesley, 1996.
[3] "HP 85190 series high-frequency IC-CAP software user*s manual", Hewlett Packard, 1995.
[4] G. Massobrio, P. Antognetti, "Semiconductor Device Modeling with SPICE 2nd ed.", McGraw Hill, 1993.
[5] H. Cho, and D.E. Burk, "A three-step method for the de-embedding of high-frequency S-parameter measurement", IEEE Trans. on Electron Devices, vol. 38, pp. 1371-1375, 1991.
[6] "HP 85190 series high-frequency IC-CAP software user*s manual", Hewlett Packard, 1995.
[7] K. Kurokawa, "Power waves and the Scattering Matrix," IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques, MTT-13,no.3,pp194-202,March 1965.
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[9] G. Gonzalez, Microwave Transistor Amplifiers and Design, Prentice Hall, Inc.1984.
[10] G.D. Vendelin, A.M. Pavio, U.L. Rohde, Microwave Circuit Design Using Linear and Nonlinear Techniques, John Wiley & Sons, Inc.,1990.
[11] T.T. Ha, Solid-State Microwave Amplifier Analysis and Design, John Wiley & Sons, Inc.,1975.
[12] "S-Parameter, Circuit Analysis and Design," Hewlett-Packard Application Note 95, September 1968.
[13] "S-Parameter Design," Hewlett-Packard Application Note154,April 1972.
[14] G. Gonzalez , "Microwave transistor Amplifier Analysis and Design" , Prentice Hall, 1994, p209.
[15] G.D. Vendelin, A.M. Pavio, U.L. Rohade, "Microwave Circuit Design Using Linear and Nonlinear Techniques", Wiley Interscience, 1990, Chapter 6.
[16] R.C. Bray, "Apllications of SAW Resonators in High - Performance Instrumentation", IEEE Transaction on Ultrasonics ,Ferroelectric, and Frequency control. Vol. 35 NO. 3,May 1988.
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