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研究生:陳小菁
研究生(外文):Hsiao Ching Chen
論文名稱:漸進式小波轉換視訊壓縮與錯誤隱藏
論文名稱(外文):Embedded Wavelet Video Coding with Error Concealment
指導教授:張寶基
指導教授(外文):Pao Chi Chang
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立中央大學
系所名稱:電機工程研究所
學門:工程學門
學類:電資工程學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:1999
畢業學年度:87
語文別:中文
論文頁數:63
中文關鍵詞:視訊編碼抗錯性漸進式小波轉換影像壓縮編碼系統多解析度影像位移預估錯誤隱藏
外文關鍵詞:video codingerror-resilient EZWmultiresolution motion estimationerror concealment
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在本論文中,我們提出一具有錯誤補償性的漸進式小波轉換視訊壓縮(Error-concealed embedded wavelet video coding, EWEC)系統在網際網路及無線網路上。這個系統包含了兩種形式的畫面 : intra (I)畫面和inter (P)畫面。Intra畫面只對其本身影像做編碼處理,因此可視為靜態影像,採用抗錯性漸進式小波轉換影像壓縮編碼技術(Error-resilient EZW, ER-EZW)。ER-EZW將小波係數分解成數個群組,每個群組皆獨立編碼。因此可將錯誤侷限在一群組內。Inter畫面是經由可變區塊大小(variable block-size)的多解析度影像位移預估(Multi-resolution motion estimation, MRME)方法所產生的。位移向量值是採用算術編碼做處理。剩餘影像(residual frame)則與intra畫面一樣採用ER-EZW做編碼。由於在EZW中任何單一錯誤都有可能會造成無法解碼的情況。為了進一步減少錯誤所造成的影響,我們在解碼端使用錯誤隱藏技術,包含了intra畫面及inter畫面的隱藏技術。在intra方面,將鄰近的小波係數取代錯誤的小波係數。在inter方面,則是將前一張影像相同位置的區塊小波係數取代這一張影像的錯誤區塊小波係數。在我們的模擬結果中,當intra畫面的錯誤率為10-3,EWEC有加上錯誤隱藏技術比沒有使用錯誤隱藏技術的效果好上7~8dB。在inter畫面即使在較高錯誤率10-2時,仍有2~3dB的改進效果。
We present an error-concealed embedded wavelet (ECEW) video coding system for transmission over Internet or wireless networks. This system consists of two types of frames: intra (I) frames and inter (P) frames. Inter frames are formed by variable block-size multiresolution motion estimation (MRME). Motion vectors are compressed by the arithmetic coding. The image data of intra frames and residual frames are coded by error-resilient embedded zerotree wavelet (ER-EZW). The ER-EZW partitions the wavelet coefficients into several groups and each group is coded independently. Therefore, errors are confined in a group. In EZW coding, any single error may result in a totally undecodable bitstream. To further reduce the error damage, we use the error concealment at the decoding end. In intra frames, we replace the erroneous wavelet coefficients by neighbors. In inter frames, we use the temporal replacement method which replaces error blocks of wavelet coefficients by the previous frame in the same position. Simulations show that the performance of ECEW with error concealment is superior to ECEW without error concealment by 7~8 dB at the error-rate of 10-3 in intra frames. The improvement still has 2~3 dB at the higher error-rate of 10-2 in inter frames.
摘要I
AbstractII
目錄III
圖目V
表目VIII
第一章 緒論1
1.1前言1
1.2研究動機1
1.3論文架構3
第二章 靜態影像編碼技術4
2.1小波轉換5
2.2 EZW之編碼架構6
2.2.1 Zerotree編碼7
2.2.2保留zerotree特性的係數分組11
2.3 實驗結果與數據分析16
第三章 動態影像編碼技術19
3.1 動態影像系統架構20
3.2多解析度影像位移預估與補償23
3.3實驗結果與數據分析28
第四章 錯誤隱藏34
4.1錯誤蔓延分析34
4.2錯誤保護的方法35
4.3 錯誤隱藏的方法38
4.3.1 I frame的隱藏的方法38
4.3.2 P frame的隱藏的方法40
4.4 漸進式動態影像編碼之錯誤隱藏41
4.5 實驗結果與數據分析47
第五章 結論與未來展望61
參考文獻62
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