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研究生:楊適修
研究生(外文):Shih-Hsiu, Yang
論文名稱:利用地表位移量進行斷層位置之判定-以花蓮地區為例
論文名稱(外文):Fault Location Determination Using Ground Surface Displacements Data — A Case Study in the Hualien Area
指導教授:林銘郎林銘郎引用關係
指導教授(外文):Min-Lang, Lin
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立中央大學
系所名稱:應用地質研究所
學門:自然科學學門
學類:地球科學學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:1999
畢業學年度:87
語文別:中文
論文頁數:99
中文關鍵詞:斷層位移破壞力學花蓮數值模擬
外文關鍵詞:faultdisplacementfracture mechanicsHualienFLAC3d
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花蓮地區長久以來因沈積物的堆積及建築開發,已無法在地表找到直接的斷層露頭,故許多研究者利用地球物理方法如震測、震源機制解等方法或是由地表的位移來找出斷層可能的位置,但目前僅止於得到區域性二維的剖面情形,至於其他範圍的斷層位置,則較無法確定。斷層在地殼材料三度空間中可以視為一連續體中的破裂面,理論上有關破裂面受力在其附近所造成的變形,已有相當的進展,但是相關理論應用在斷層研究方面仍然相當缺乏。本研究利用此一方面的理論,提供一個由斷層附近的地表變形監測資料,推估斷層在地殼中的位置,以及斷層跡在地表面通過位置之方法,亦藉由三維數值分析對於斷層活動特性作進一步的瞭解,並以花蓮地區之水準監測資料進行檢驗,探討本研究方法應用於此地區之可行性。研究結果顯示在理想情況下,二維反算方法之解析度相當準確,進一步以花蓮地區水準監測資料進行反算後,得到之可能斷層位置座標為(309000, 2654600)、(307000, 2650800),約在花蓮吉安附近;斷層走向約為北偏東27度;長度約為4.3公里。根據三維數值分析所得結果,證明斜滑斷層之地表鉛直方向位移形式亦類似平滑斷層獨特之地表鉛直方向位移形式。以二維分析方法解析出之斷層位置,輔以三維數值分析,有助於了解影響花蓮地區地表變形的機制,其結果顯示花蓮地區斷層活動以走向斷層為主並兼具逆衝分量,斷層位態屬於高角度斷層,且斷層面並未出露至地表,屬於一盲斷層。
Due to sedimentation and exploiture, it’s hard to observe fault outcrop directly in the Hualien area. Geology workers employed geophysical techniques such as shallow reflection seismic method, focal mechanism, geodetic observation, trying to locate possible fault locations, but the insufficiencies of the above method were that, in short, could only determine fault locations at certain points instead of the entire fault trace. The discontinuous nature of faults allows them to be treated as large cracks in brittle materials. Thus, linear elastic fracture mechanics can be applied to evaluate the stresses and the associated ground surface displacements resulting from fault movements.
In this proposed study, we present a method, based on LEFM theory, can be used to determine fault locations through available ground surface displacements data. A three dimensional numerical analysis is also adopted, furthermore to understand the response of materials around faults when faults are being mobilized. The numerical analysis results in this study were compared to the local leveling survey data, in order to analyse the factors that affect the ground surface deformation around faults in the Hualien area.
Our research results showed that, under ideal condition, the resolution of the two dimensional inverse method is very accurate. Applied this method to local leveling survey data, the calculated possible fault location was near Ji-an, Hualien, two fault tips coordinate were (309000, 2654600) and (307000, 2650800), strike was N27°E, and fault length was approximately 4.3 km long. Three dimensional numerical analysis results showed that the fault in the Hualien area was oblique- slip, high angle dip, and somewhat exhibited blind fault behavior.
誌謝II
目錄III
表目錄V
圖目錄VI
第一章緒論1
1. 1研究動機與目的1
1. 2研究內容3
1. 3前人研究4
1. 3. 1花蓮地區之地質研究4
1. 3. 2斷層分段6
1. 3. 3破壞力學理論應用於斷層相關問題7
1. 3. 4台灣東部地區的地殼變形監測7
1. 3. 5斷層、地震及地殼變形之關係8
第二章花蓮地區之地質背景10
2. 1地質構造10
2. 2地層概述15
第三章基礎理論與研究方法18
3. 1線彈性破壞力學理論18
3. 1. 1破壞模式19
3. 1. 2平面應力19
3. 1. 3平面應變20
3. 1. 4材料中裂隙周圍之應力場與位移場21
3. 2理論模型24
3. 3原始水準資料之處理28
3. 4二維數值反算方法31
3. 4. 1概念31
3. 4. 2程式流程35
3. 5三維數值分析方法37
3. 5. 1三維數值分析程式FLAC3D簡介37
3. 5. 2三維數值分析模型之建立37
3. 5. 3資料之處理與分析41
3. 5. 4斷層傾角與地表變形之關係43
3. 5. 5斜滑斷層模式分析45
3. 5. 6盲斷層模式分析47
第四章二維反算研究結果與討論48
4. 1程式驗證48
4. 1. 1正確性測試48
4. 1. 2資料點分布狀況對解析斷層位置之影響測試50
4. 2水準資料逆推結果53
4. 2. 1 1986年7月至1986年12月53
4. 2. 2 1986年12月至1988年6月54
4. 2. 3 1984年至1988年累計資料55
4. 3 二維反算結果討論59
第五章三維分析結果與討論60
5. 1三維數值分析與二維解析解之關係60
5. 2斷層傾角與地表變形之關係62
5. 3斜滑斷層模式分析70
5. 4盲斷層模式分析74
5. 5地震與地殼變形關係討論78
第六章結論與建議82
6. 1結論82
6. 2建議83
參考文獻84
附錄87
附錄A:本研究之FLAC3D模型分析資料檔範例87
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