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研究生:林志墩
研究生(外文):Chih-Tun Lin
論文名稱:生物濾床處理都市污水碳、氮之研究
論文名稱(外文):The study of nutrient removal by biofilters system
指導教授:歐陽嶠暉歐陽嶠暉引用關係
指導教授(外文):Chaio Fei Ouyang
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立中央大學
系所名稱:環境工程研究所
學門:工程學門
學類:環境工程學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:1999
畢業學年度:87
語文別:中文
論文頁數:116
中文關鍵詞:生物濾床水力停留時間硝化作用脫硝作用COD氧化作用
外文關鍵詞:biofilterhydraulic retention time(HRT)nitrificationdenitrificationCOD oxidation
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有機物及氨氮是都市污水的重要污染物質,台灣地區之污水處理仍以活性污泥法為主流,但是活性污泥法由於易發生污泥膨化之問題,使污泥外溢而影響放流水水質。生物濾床因不需要終沈池做固液分離,所以沒有污泥膨化的問題。因此,本研究分為兩部分,第一部份建立向上流及向下流兩支好氧生物濾床,第二部分建立串聯式及單管柱厭氧/好氧生物濾床,均以HRT=2、3、6、9 hrs(有機負荷分別為3.6、2.4、1.2、0.8 kgCOD/m3×d)進行操作,在連續穩態培養下探討COD氧化及氨氮硝化、脫硝效率,並作一連串批次實驗求得穩態培養下濾床的特性。
實驗結果顯示在第一部份好氧濾床中,COD的去除率均可達98﹪以上,且與停留時間及流向狀況無關,在硝化方面,HRT至少需要3 hrs以上才有較佳的硝化效果,且當HRT增加則硝化效果也跟著增加。由實驗數據推論好氧生物濾床中之微生物與濾床高度有密切關係,即向上流生物濾床下半部為異營菌主要生長區,上半部為硝化自營菌主要生長區,且當HRT增長時,硝化菌有向反應初期位置(即向上流之下部、向下流之上部)增長之趨勢。
第二部分厭氧/好氧濾床之結果顯示,COD去除率在HRT=6、9 、12hrs均可達96﹪以上,顯示在HRT為6 hrs以上時,HRT對COD去除不是絕對影響因子。在氮的硝化方面,串聯式及單管柱濾床在HRT=9 hrs以上始有較佳的硝化效果。批次實驗之脫硝特性分析,厭氧段COD的去除主要作用是提供脫硝所需之碳源,NH3-N去除主要為生物合成所需之氮源,故厭氧段對COD去除之貢獻有限,且不進行NH3-N之硝化作用。而由實驗數據可知總氮的去除限制因子為硝化的是否完全,而非脫硝反應。
Organic compounds and NH3-N are important pollutant in municipal wastewater. Traditionally, the activated sludge process is used to eliminating pollutant. However, activated sludge bulking is a serious problem for a long time. The biofilter process has been successfully used to replace activated sludge process for wastewater treatment. In this study, two laboratory scale biofilters column system were set up.
One is single-column aerobic biofilter system that can be divided into upflow and downflow column, which was investigated the different oxidative efficiency of organic compounds and ammonia nitrogen. The other is anaerobic/aerobic biofilter system that can be divided into dual-column and single-column systems, which was investigated the effect of the loading and bacteria activity on nitrogen removal. The comparison of characteristics between two systems is discussed.
In upflow aerobic biofilter, the experiment showed that COD decreased rapidly to lower levels in the 0-20cm height. Additionally, nitrification occurred until 40-80cm height. NH3-N oxidation rates were closely related to COD oxidation rates, NH3-N oxidative rates increased as COD oxidative rates decreased. That resulted from distribution of different microorganisms. Heterotrophs distributed in the lower zone of the biofilter and nitrifying bacteria in the middle to upper zone. The different microorganisms could uniformly grow in the whole biofilter when HRT was longer. In downflow aerobic biofilter,
In dual-column and single-column anaerobic/aerobic biofilter, as shown by experiments, the removal performance of COD is almost 96﹪at different HRT. The experiment shows that hydraulic loading affects the diffusion of NH3-N from the bulk solution to inner biofilm. Nitrification depends on the diffusion. The recycling NO3-N could be completely eliminated in the anoxic biofilter. The operation with longer retention time (HRT of 9 hours) was efficient in total nitrogen removal. Heterotrophys that oxidize organic developed in the lower zone of the biofilter, and nitrifying in the middle to upper zone.
第一章 前言1
1.1研究緣起1
1.2研究目的與內容2
第二章 文獻回顧3
2.1生物膜基本理論3
2.1.1生物膜法之原理3
2.1.2生物膜上的微生物種類5
2.2生物膜的構造及動力學6
2.2.1生物膜構造6
2.2.2生物膜動力學模式9
2.3生物濾床原理12
2.3.1生物濾床流況12
2.3.2生物濾床操作與去除機制14
2.3.3濾材特性16
2.4生物濾床除氮的原理與程序20
2.4.1硝化作用20
2.4.2脫硝作用26
第三章 實驗設備與方法30
3.1 實驗設計與設備30
3.1.1硝化程序實驗設計30
3.1.2硝化、脫硝程序實驗設計34
3.1.3實驗設備37
3.2實驗基質與生物膜培養37
3.3分析方法與設備39
3.3.1分析方法39
3.3.2分析設備40
第四章 結果與討論41
4.1 向上流好氧生物濾床處理特性41
4.1.1向上流好氧生物濾床處理結果分析41
4.1.2向上流好氧生物濾床批次實驗之討論45
4.2 向下流好氧生物濾床處理特性50
4.2.1 向下流好氧生物濾床處理結果分析50
4.2.2向下流好氧生物濾床批次實驗結果53
4.3 好氧生物濾床氧化、硝化特性之比較58
4.3.1向上流生物濾床的比較58
4.3.2向下流生物濾床的比較64
4.3.3不同流向的比較70
4.4 串聯厭氧、好氧生物濾床處理特性76
4.4.1串聯厭氧、好氧生物濾床處理結果分析76
4.4.2串聯厭氧、好氧生物濾床批次實驗之討論79
4.5單管柱厭氧、好氧生物濾床處理特性84
4.5.1單管柱厭氧、好氧生物濾床處理結果分析84
4.5.2單管柱厭氧、好氧生物濾床批次實驗之討論86
4.6生物濾床硝化、脫硝特性之比較90
4.6.1串聯式厭氧、好氧濾床的比較90
4.6.2 單管柱濾床厭氧、好氧的比較97
第五章 結論與建議103
5.1結論103
5.2建議105
參考文獻106
附錄109
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