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研究生:陳美璉
研究生(外文):Mei-lien Chen
論文名稱:國中學生英語學習之音韻探討
論文名稱(外文):Interlanguage Phonology of EFL Students
指導教授:鍾榮富鍾榮富引用關係
指導教授(外文):Raung-fu Chung
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立高雄師範大學
系所名稱:英語學系
學門:人文學門
學類:外國語文學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:1999
畢業學年度:87
語文別:英文
論文頁數:133
中文關鍵詞:英語發音音韻
外文關鍵詞:interlanguageEnglishpronunciation
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論文名稱: 國中學生英語學習之音韻探討
校 (院) 所組別: 國立高雄師範大學英語系碩士班
畢業時間及提要別: 八十七年度第二學期碩士論文提要
指導教授: 鍾榮富博士
研究生: 陳美璉
論文提要內容:
本研究主旨在描述國中學生在學習英語的過程中所擁有的音韻系統,並探討造成學生學習困難的原因。我們收集了四十名國二學生的錄音資料,從分析中來了解他們在英語發音-包含子音,母音,重音,語調所遭遇到的困難。最後從interlanguage的觀點來探討他們學習英語的困難,其觀點包含了第一語言的轉移 (L1 transfer),英語為母語的語音習得過程 (English developmental processes),語言的共通性(Language Universals)。結果顯示國中學生的音韻系統主要受以下幾個因素影響: 國語的干擾,語言習得的自然過程,及缺乏英語音韻知識。而當中,影響他們英語學習的最深的是,國語的干擾和語言習得的自然過程。而且兩者對學習困難有著交互影響。首先,國語的干擾 (L1 interference) 能解釋國中學生在發音中所遇到的困難,但是它無法預測學生會用甚麼音來代替。在這點,英語為母語的習得過程可預測學生傾向會用什麼音來代替一些對學生比較困難的音。此外,本研究更發現,第一語言的轉移傾向發生於英語及國語中相似處,但英語為母語的習得過程傾向發生於英語及國語不同處。也就是說當英語和國語不同時,學生英語習得的過程會很像英語為母語的習得過程。
在子音串 (Consonant clusters) 的研究中,有三項重要的發現。第一,國中學生在碰到子音串時,傾向會省略一個音 (cluster reduction),或在子音後增加一個母音 (vowel epenthesis)。第二,比起字首跟字中的子音串,字尾的子音串比較容易被省略。第三,在子音串省略時,學生傾向會省略流音 (liquids),再來就是省略塞音 (stops)。這個發現我們用英語語音習得過程及Clement的響音理論 (Sonority Theory) 來解釋這個結果。最後,在語調的研究中,結果顯示學生較容易注意到是非問句 (yes-no questions) 的上升語調 (rising contours)。

This thesis is concerned with the description and interpretation of second language speech produced by second-grade junior high school students in learning English. The description of their production is surveyed in terms of phonetic aspect, phonological rules, consonant clusters, and prosodic features (stress and intonation). What is more important, the attempt to discover and explain the characteristics of their second language speech are approached from a number of different perspectives: transfer from L1, developmental processes of the target language (English), and markedness relation from universal implication. Besides, the interaction of these factors with learners' interlanguage is also the major concern in this study
The results of this study are investigated in the light of the segmental aspects, consonant cluster, and the prosodic aspect. In terms of segmental aspects, we conclude that the production of the subjects can be examined with reference to L1 transfer, English developmental sequences, sound misperception and the lack of English phonological knowledge. This indicates an important fact that L1 transfer is by no means the only factors operative in the learning of English. Besides, the interaction of L1 transfer and English developmental processes with the participants' interlanguage is also explored in this study. L1 transfer best predicts the difficulty of segment, while English developmental processes best account for the sound substitution for these difficult sounds. For example, L1 transfer is successful in predicting the participants' difficulty with the segment /T/, /Z/, and /D/, since they are absent from Mandarin. However, L1 transfer fails to account for the systematic substitutions for these difficult sounds. For instance, the participants tend to replace /T/ with /s/, /f/ or /d/. In this respect, English developmental sequences provide an insight into sound substitutions for /T/ in that English-speaking children also show the tendency to mispronounce /T/ as /s/, /f/, or /d/.
In addition, L1 transfer is more likely to occur when L1 and L2 are similar, whereas English developmental processes are liable to occur when L1 and L2 are different. For instance, English segments /S, tS, dZ/ have the counterparts in Mandarin /t, tt, tt'/. Their phonological similarity induces the participants to establish correspondences between the target sound and their Mandarin counterparts and thereby to acquire them faster. By contrast, the segments /T, D, Z/ absent from Mandarin are acquired slowly and the acquisition of these segments are somewhat similar to English phonological development, since their sound substitutions for these segments can be found in the production of English-speaking children.
Concerning consonant clusters, there are three important findings worth noting. First, cluster reduction and vowel epenthesis are two common strategies employed by the participants in producing English consonant clusters. Besides, it is observed that the subjects prefer cluster reduction to vowel epenthesis. Second, final consonant clusters are more subject to reduction than medial and initial ones. Third, the reduction of consonant clusters is not random, but shows a predictable pattern: The deletion of liquids takes priority over the omission of other consonants in clusters, followed by the deletion of stops.
The top priority of the deletion of the liquids in clusters is accounted for by English developmental sequences. The tendency to delete the liquid in clusters is well documented in the acquisition of first language phonology of English. (cf. Locke, 1983; Stoel-Grammons & Dunn, 1985; Vihmen, 1996). In addition, Clements' Sonority Theory (1990) provide an insight into the reason why the deletion of the stop in the final clusters is the second strategy used by the participants.
Regarding the prosodic aspect, most of the participants have difficulty with English intonation and English stress. In terms of grammatical constructions, we observe that the subjects perform better on yes-no questions than the other sentence patterns. It appears that some of the subjects notice and pay attention to the rising contour at the end of yes-no questions.

Chapter 1 Introduction
1.0 Introduction
1.1 Background and Motivation 1
1.2 Purposes of the Study 6
1.3 Significance of the Study 8
Chapter 2 Review of Literature
2.1 Introduction 9
2.2 Comparison of Phonological Systems of English and Mandarin 10
2.2.1 Consonant Systems of English and Mandarin10
2.2.1.1 English Consonants 10
2.2.1.2 Mandarin Consonants14
2.2.1. 3 Comparison of Consonant Inventories in English and Mandarin 15
2.2.2 Vowel Systems of English and Mandarin 19
2.2.2.1 English Vowels 19
2.2.2.2 Mandarin Vowels20
2.2.2.3 Comparison of Vowel in English and Mandarin20
2.2.3 Syllable Structures of English and Mandarin21
2.2.3.1 Syllable Structure of English21
2.2.3.2 Syllable Structure of Mandarin22
2.2.3.3 Comparison of the Syllable Structures of English and Mandarin 23
2.2.4 Stress in English24
2.2.5 Tone in Mandarin26
2.2.6 Stress in English and Mandarin27
2.2.7 Intonation in English27
2.2.8 Intonation in Mandarin32
2.2.9 Comparison of Intonation in English and Mandarin34
2.3 Phonological Development of English34
2.4 Language Universals37
Chapter 3 Methodology
3.1 Introduction39
3.2 Subjects39
3.3 Instruments41
3.4 Data Collection43
3.5 Data Analysis43
3.6 Evaluation of Subjects' Performance in Intonation43
Chapter 4 Results and Discussion
4.0 Introduction45
4.1 Phonetic Aspect48
4.1.1 Consonants48
4.1.1.1 Substitution50
4.1.1.2 Epenthesis55
4.1.1.3 Deletion56
4.1.2 Vowels57
4.2 Phonological Rules60
4.2.1 Substitution Process60
4.2.1.1 Change in Manner of Articulation61
4.2.1.2 Change in Place of Articulation80
4.2.2 Addition Process85
4.2.3 Deletion Process89
4.2.4 Conclusion92
4.3 Consonant Clusters97
4.3.1 Clusters of a Liquid Plus Another Consonant97
4.3.2 Stop Plus Another Consonant Clusters100
4.3.3 Conclusion and Discussion103
4.4 Prosodic Aspect109
4.4.1 Students' Performance in Intonation109
4.4.1.1 Students' Performance in Sentence-final
Intonation113
4.4.1.2 Students' Performance in Different
Grammatical Constructions114
4.4.2 Students' Performance in Stress115
4.4.3 Conclusion117
Chapter 5 Conclusion
5.1 The Main Findings 119
5.2 Suggestions for Teaching English Pronunciation120
5.3 Limitation and Suggestions for Further study121
Reference 123
Appendix 1 131
Appendix 2 132
Appendix 3 133

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