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研究生:白耀立
論文名稱:四種根類澱粉物化性質之研究
論文名稱(外文):Studies of the physicochemical properties of four root starches
指導教授:黃卓治黃卓治引用關係劉展冏劉展冏引用關係
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立屏東科技大學
系所名稱:食品科學系
學門:農業科學學門
學類:食品科學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:1999
畢業學年度:87
語文別:中文
論文頁數:79
中文關鍵詞:根類澱粉糊化
外文關鍵詞:root starchesgelatinization
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本研究探討不同種類根類澱粉的糊化性質及所得凝膠之結構。實驗中利用相同濃度
(16%,w/w)的澱粉溶液進行試驗,使用包括掃描式電子顯微鏡(SEM)、物性測定儀(Instron)
、布氏連續粘度圖(6%,w/w) 測定。結果發現直鏈澱粉含量較低的(18%)樹薯粉,其糊化溫
度較低(63.5℃),布氏連續粘度圖測得的粘度較高(730 BU),凝膠結構方面Instron測得的硬
度(Hardness) 0.089Kg、膠質感(Gumminess) 0.05Kg和咀嚼感(Chewiness) 0.045 Kg最低,SEM
觀察則呈現三度空間的網狀構造;馬蹄粉含有較多的直鏈澱粉(23%),其糊化的溫度較高
(71℃),布氏連續圖測得的粘度較低(420 BU),凝膠的硬度0.65Kg 、膠質感0.30Kg和咀嚼
感0.27Kg最高,SEM呈現片狀的構造,與樹薯粉之間有明顯的差異。而甘藷粉和葛粉的粘
度及結構則是介於二者之間。
This project is aimed to investigate the physico-chemical properties of starches and their gels from
various root crops. Methods applied include Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM), Brabender
Amylograph and Universal Testing Machine (Instron). The results showed Tapioca with low amylose
content (18%) was found to have low gelatinization temperature (63.5℃), also resulted in low hardness
(0.089Kg), gumminess(0.05Kg) and chewiness(0.045Kg) for the formed gel ,but showed high viscosity (730BU)(Brabender amylograph). SEM results indicated sponge-like structure for gels formed by tapioca.
Water chestnut starch, which had the highest amylose content (23%) among the materials studied,
exhibited high gelatinization temperature (71℃), low viscosity (420 BU) and higher hardness(0.65Kg)、gumminess(0.30Kg) and high chewiness(0.27Kg) for the formed gel SEM showed a structure of stacked
layers. The viscosity and structure of sweet potato and arrowroot starch were between these two mentioned
above.
頁次
中文摘要-------------------------------------------------------------Ⅰ
英文摘要-------------------------------------------------------------Ⅱ
誌謝-------------------------------------------------------------------Ⅲ
目錄-------------------------------------------------------------------Ⅳ
圖索引----------------------------------------------------------------Ⅵ
表索引----------------------------------------------------------------Ⅷ
壹、緒言--------------------------------------------------------------1
貳、文獻回顧--------------------------------------------------------2
一、澱粉顆粒---------------------------------------------------2
二、澱粉之組成------------------------------------------------2
三、澱粉之結晶------------------------------------------------4
四、影響澱粉糊化之因子------------------------------------14
五、澱粉中磷含量---------------------------------------------17
參、材料與方法----------------------------------------------------20
一、實驗流程圖----------------------------------------------20
二、澱粉劃分之流程圖-------------------------------------21
三、試驗材料-------------------------------------------------23
四、試驗方法-------------------------------------------------23
(一) 澱粉之劃分及各劃分之純化--------------------23
1. 澱粉之分散--------------------------------------23
2. 直鏈澱粉之純化--------------------------------24
3. 中間成分(直鏈澱粉取得)之製備及純化---24
4. 支鏈澱粉之純化--------------------------------25
5. 中間成分(支鏈澱粉取得)之製備及純化---26
6. 支鏈澱粉之製備--------------------------------26
(二) 基本成分分析---------------------------------------27
1. 水份含量測定-----------------------------------27
2. 粗脂肪定量--------------------------------------27
3. 磷定量--------------------------------------------27
4. 直鏈澱粉含量測定-----------------------------28
5. 碘呈色最大吸光值-----------------------------29
6. 磷定性--------------------------------------------28
7. X-射線繞射分析--------------------------------29
8. 布氏澱粉連續粘度圖--------------------------30
9. 示差掃描熱分析--------------------------------30
10凝膠製備-----------------------------------------30
11.組織剖面分析-----------------------------------30
12.掃描式電子顯微鏡觀察-----------------------31
13.統計分析-----------------------------------------31
肆、結果與討論-----------------------------------------------------33
一、 澱粉之劃分-----------------------------------------------33
二、 原料之分析-----------------------------------------------35
1.基本成份分析------------------------------------------35
2.直鏈澱粉含量之測定---------------------------------35
3.碘呈色最大吸光波長---------------------------------42
4.固態超導體核磁共振儀繞射------------------------42
5.結晶型態分析------------------------------------------45
6.布氏澱粉連續粘度圖---------------------------------45
7.DSC結果------------------------------------------------47
三、 凝膠結果分析---------------------------------------------52
1. SEM觀察----------------------------------------------52
2. TPA試驗-----------------------------------------------58
四、統計分析---------------------------------------------------58
伍、結論--------------------------------------------------------------67
陸、參考文獻--------------------------------------------------------68
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