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研究生:黃俊智
研究生(外文):Chun-Chih Huang
論文名稱:洋蔥萃取液之抑菌性探討
論文名稱(外文):Studies on Antimicrobial activity of Onion Extract
指導教授:鄧德豐鄧德豐引用關係謝寶全謝寶全引用關係
指導教授(外文):Der-Feng DentPao-Chuan Hsieh
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立屏東科技大學
系所名稱:食品科學系
學門:農業科學學門
學類:食品科學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:1999
畢業學年度:87
語文別:中文
論文頁數:157
中文關鍵詞:洋蔥濾紙圓盤擴散法抑菌活性
外文關鍵詞:onion extractpaper disk diffsion techniqueantimicrobial activity
相關次數:
  • 被引用被引用:17
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本研究係針對省產洋蔥,以不同溶劑進行萃取,取得含抑菌成份之萃取液。利用濾紙圓盤擴散法分析洋蔥萃取物之抑菌活性,結果以水為溶劑所得的萃取液,對實驗中之16株試驗菌株具有較佳的抑菌活性。進一步探討洋蔥水萃取液在各種pH、溫度、甜味劑、金屬離子及常用化學添加物中,對其抑菌活性之影響,結果發現洋蔥水萃取液受到pH值改變及加熱處理而顯著降低抑菌活性,但在中性條件及121℃15分鐘加熱處理後仍保有抑菌活性。而金屬離子Fe3+有促進抑菌之效果,但Ca2+會降低對Salmonella typhimurium之抑制作用。洋蔥水萃取液添加0.1%檸檬酸對Listeria monocytogenes的抑菌效果較好(p<0.05)。8oBrix的蔗糖濃度可提高洋蔥水萃取液對Flavobacterium sp.及Vibro parahaemolyticus的抑菌性,添加3%乳酸鈉於洋蔥水萃取液中對Staphylococcus aureus有較佳的抑菌效果(p<0.05)。而洋蔥水萃取液對試驗菌株之抑菌作用中,發現對E. coli、S. typhimurium、P. aeruginosa、Flavobacterium sp.及Kloeckera apiculata等菌具有殺菌效果。
在應用於食物中,以添加0.5%之洋蔥水萃取液於新鮮柳丁汁中,貯存5天其生菌數皆低於控制組之下;在生乳及市售奶茶中一樣具有抑菌作用。因此,將洋蔥水萃取液,以膠體過濾進行初步純化後,其所得部分純化物質之抑菌作用皆高於粗萃取液,初步測其抗菌成份之分子量約為800~1000Da。
The antimicrobial effects of domestic onion, extracted bywater or different solvents were investigated in the project. The antimicrobial tests of onion extract were carried out by paper disk diffusion technique. Results revealed that water extract of onion had the highest antimicrobial activity on 16 microbial strains. Effects of pH, temperature, sugar, metal ions and chemical additives on the activities were further studied. The antimicrobial activities decreased dramatically with increasing pH and heating process. However, antimicrobial activities were still effective in neutral pH or after a treatment at 121℃,15 minutes. In addition, adding Fe3+ ion into the onion water extract facilitated the inhibition of microorganisms, but Ca2+ ion reduced the effect on Salmonella typhimurium. Furthermore, addition of 0.1% citric acid in the onion extract had better antimicrobial effect on Listeria monocytogenes(p<0.05). The antimicrobial activity could had increased on Flavobacterium sp. and Vibrio parahaemolyticus . Addition of 3% sodium lactate had better inhibitory effect on Staphylococcus aureus. The onion water extract had germicidal effect on E. coli, S. typhimurium, P. aeruginosa, Flavobacterium sp., S. aureus, and Klockera apiculata.
For various food, addition of 0.5% onion water extract into orange juice had less microorganisms than control after five days storage, it also showed some antimicrobial. activies in milk and pork. Preliminary purification was carried out by gel filtration, the partly purified fraction had higher effect than crude extracts. The molecular weight of this fraction was 800~1000 Da.
目 錄
頁數
中文摘要-----------------------------------------------------------------Ⅰ
英文摘要-----------------------------------------------------------------Ⅱ
誌 謝--------------------------------------------------------------------Ⅲ
圖 目 錄-------------------------------------------------------------------Ⅸ
表 目 錄-------------------------------------------------------------------XI
壹、緒言------------------------------------------------------------------ 1
貳、文獻回顧------------------------------------------------------------ 4
一.天然植物之抑菌作用-------------------------------------------- 4
二.食品中自然產生的抗菌物質----------------------------------12
(一)酵素和其他蛋白質--------------------------------------------12
(二)肉桂酸衍生物(hydroxycinnamic acid derivatives)---13
(三)咖啡因(caffeine)------------------------------------------------14
(四)茶鹼(theophlline)和可可鹼(theobromine)-----------------14
(五)植物抗毒素(phytoalexins)------------------------------------15
(六)中鏈脂肪酸(medium-chain fatty acid)----------------------15
(七)有機酸(organic acid )-------------------------------------------16
三.抗生物質及非抗生物質類抗菌劑的作用模式-------------19
四.洋蔥抑菌性質之研究---------------------------------------------24
(一)、洋蔥組成份----------------------------------------------------24
(二)、洋蔥藥理性質-------------------------------------------------24
(三)、洋蔥產量-------------------------------------------------------26
(四)、洋蔥加工製品-------------------------------------------------26
(五)、洋蔥之抗菌性-------------------------------------------------29
五. 研究動機及目的---------------------------------------------------37
參、材料與方法----------------------------------------------------------38
一.試驗材料-----------------------------------------------------------38
3.1.1 洋蔥-----------------------------------------------------------------38
3.1.2 試驗菌株----------------------------------------------------------38
3.1.3 培養基及試藥----------------------------------------------------38
二.實驗方法------------------------------------------------------------41
3.2.1 抑菌物質成分之製備------------------------------------------41
3.2.2 菌種之保存與更新---------------------------------------------41
3.2.3 種菌之製備-------------------------------------------------------41
3.2.4 抑菌試驗----------------------------------------------------------42
3.2.4.1濾紙圓片擴散法------------------------------------------------42
3.2.4.2抑菌率測定------------------------------------------------------43
3.2.4.3黴菌菌絲重之測定--------------------------------------------43
3.2.4.4生菌數之測定--------------------------------------------------44
3.2.5洋蔥水萃取液之糖類分析-----------------------------------44
3.2.6溫度對洋蔥水萃取液抑菌活性之影響------------------45
3.2.7金屬離子對洋蔥水萃取液抑菌活性之影響------------45
3.2.8食品添加劑對洋蔥水萃取液抑菌活性之影響--------45
3.2.8.1化學試劑-------------------------------------------------------45
3.2.8.2安定劑----------------------------------------------------------46
3.2.8.3抗氧化劑-------------------------------------------------------46
3.2.9 pH值對洋蔥水萃取液抑菌活性之影響-----------------46
3.2.10甜味劑對洋蔥水萃取液抑菌活性之影響-------------47
3.2.11不同濃度之洋蔥水萃取液及sodium benzoate對
Staphylococcus aureus生長之影響------------------------- 47
3.2.12同濃度之洋蔥水萃取液及potassium sorbate對
Pichia membranaefaciens生長之影響---------------------------47
3.2.13不同濃度之洋蔥水萃取液對黴菌生長之抑制率--48
3.2.14貯存條件對洋蔥水萃取液抑菌作用之影響---------48
3.2 .15 酵素除糖對洋蔥水萃取液抑菌活性之影響--------------- 48
3.2 .16 不同稀釋濃度之洋蔥水萃取液對抑菌活性之影響-----48
3.2 .17 添加乳酸鈉對洋蔥水萃取液之抑菌性影響--------------- 49
3.2. 18添加幾丁聚糖乳酸鹽對洋蔥水萃取液之抑菌性影響--- 49
3.2. 19 添加脂肪酸蔗糖酯對洋蔥水萃取液抑菌活性之影響-- 49
3.2. 20 粗類細菌素(Bacteriocin-like)液對洋蔥水萃取液抑菌活-
性之影響-----------------------------------------------------------------49
3.2.20.1粗類細菌素液之製備-------------------------------------------50
3.2.20.2粗類細菌素液之抑菌試驗-------------------------------------50
3.2.20.3添加粗類細菌素液於洋蔥水萃取液中之抑菌試驗-----50
3.2.20.4添加粗類細菌素液於洋蔥水萃取液中各種特性探討--50
3.2.21 洋蔥水萃取液對各種食品之保存性探討-------------------50
3.2.21.1添加於貯存柳丁汁中之抑菌試驗---------------------------50
3.2.21.2添加於貯存豬肉中之抑菌試驗------------------------------51
3.2.21.3 添加於貯存生乳中之抑菌試驗-----------------------------51
3.2.21.4 添加於貯存市售素食製品中之抑菌試驗-----------------51
3.2.21.5 添加於貯存市售奶茶飲料中之抑菌試驗-----------------51
3.2.22 sephadex G-50之膠體過濾色層分析法----------------------51
3.2.23 sephadex G-50之膠體過濾法測定洋蔥水萃取--
液抑菌物質之分子量-------------------------------------------------52
3.2.24 以透析法去除洋蔥水萃取液中糖類之抑菌試驗----------53
3.2.25 超過濾(ultrafiltration)濾液之抑菌性試--------------------53
3.2.26 氣相層析儀法(gas chromatography)分析抑菌成分--------53
3.2.27 統計分析(statistical analysis system,SAS)-------------------54
肆、結果與討論------------------------------------------------------------55
一. 不同洋蔥品種及溶劑萃取液對試驗菌株抑菌活性之探討-55
二.洋蔥水萃取液之特性探討---------------------------------------61
4.2.1洋蔥水萃取液經加熱處理對其抑菌活性的影響------------ 61
4.2.1.1不同溫度及不同時間加熱處理對洋蔥水萃取液抑菌活
性之影響----------------------------------------------------------------61
4.2.1.2在相同時間不同溫度下加熱處理對洋蔥水萃取液抑菌--
活性之影響-------------------------------------------------------------61
4.2.2不同pH值處理對洋蔥水萃取液之抑菌活性的影響--------65
4.2.3金屬離子對洋蔥水萃取液抑菌作用之影響------------------69
4.2.4食品添加劑對洋蔥水萃取液之抑菌活性的影響------------72
4.2.4.1化學試劑------------------------------------------------------------72
4.2.4.2安定劑---------------------------------------------------------------72
4.2.4.3抗氧化劑------------------------------------------------------------74
4.2.5甜味劑對洋蔥水萃取液抑菌活性之影響--------------------77
4.2.6不同濃度的洋蔥水萃取液對細菌之抑制率-----------------79
4.2.7不同濃度的洋蔥水萃取液對酵母菌之抑制率--------------81
4.2.8不同濃度之洋蔥水萃取液對黴菌之抑菌率探討-----------81
4.2.9不同濃度之洋蔥水萃取液與化學防腐劑之抑菌性比較--84
4.2.9.1不同濃度之洋蔥水萃取液及安息香酸鈉對Escherichia
coli的抑制情形--------------------------------------------------------84
4.2.9.2不同濃度之洋蔥水萃取液及己二烯酸鉀對Pichia
membranaefaciens的抑制情形--------------------------------------87
4.2.10貯存條件對洋蔥水萃取液之抑菌作用影響----------------87
4.2.11不同稀釋濃度之洋蔥水萃取液對試驗菌株抑菌性之影
響-------------------------------------------------------------------------92
三.洋蔥水萃取液抑菌作用之探討-----------------------------------92
4.3.2洋蔥水萃取液之抑菌機制---------------------------------------92
四.各種食品常用化學試劑對洋蔥水萃取液之抑菌性探討---97
4.4.1添加乳酸鈉對洋蔥水萃取液之抑菌活性影響-------------97
4.4.2添加幾丁聚醣乳酸鹽(chitosan lactate)對洋蔥水萃取液之
抑菌性試驗------------------------------------------------------------97
4.4.3添加脂肪酸蔗糖酯(Sugar ester)對洋蔥水萃取液之抑菌活
性影響------------------------------------------------------------------99
五.乳酸菌發酵之粗類細菌素(Bacteriocin-like)液對洋蔥水萃取
液抑菌活性之影響-------------------------------------------------102
4.5.1高溫處理對含粗類細菌素之洋蔥水萃取液抑菌活性之影響
--------------------------------------------------------------------------104
4.5.2化學試劑對含粗類細菌素之洋蔥水萃取液抑菌活性之影響
--------------------------------------------------------------------------109
4.5.3抗氧化劑對含粗類細菌素之洋蔥水萃取液抑菌活性之影響
--------------------------------------------------------------------------109
4.5.4金屬離子對含粗類細菌素之洋蔥水萃取液抑菌活性之影響
--------------------------------------------------------------------------112
4.5.5安定劑對含粗類細菌素之洋蔥水萃取液抑菌活性之影響--
--------------------------------------------------------------------------112
六.洋蔥水萃取液應用於食物中之抑菌作用探討------------112
4.6.1洋蔥水萃取液對貯存柳丁汁中總生菌數之影響------112
4.6.2洋蔥水萃取液對貯存豬肉中總生菌數增殖之影響---115
4.6.3洋蔥水萃取液對貯存生乳中總生菌數增殖之影響---115
4.6.4洋蔥水萃取液對貯存素火腿中微生物增殖之影響---119
4.6.5洋蔥水萃取液對貯存市售奶茶中微生物增殖之影響--119
七.各種處理對洋蔥水萃取液抑菌活性之影響---------------119
4.7.1用酵素法除糖對洋蔥水萃取液抑菌活性之影響------119
4.7.2透析膜處理對洋蔥水萃取液抑菌活性之影響---------128
八.與商品化食品保存劑抑菌性比較---------------------------130
4.8.1仿商品化之洋蔥水萃取液之抑菌活性影響------------130
4.8.2不同種類之洋蔥水萃取液與日製食品保存劑之抑菌活性比
較-----------------------------------------------------------------------132
九.活性碳吸附洋蔥水萃取液之抑菌活性影響--------------132
十.洋蔥水萃取液中抑菌物質之分析---------------------------135
4.10.1洋蔥水萃取液進行分離純化及抑菌性測定----------135
4.10.2洋蔥水萃取液中抑菌物質分子量之分析-------------138
4.10.3超過濾膜處理對洋蔥水萃取液抑菌活性之影響---138
4.10.4洋蔥水萃取液之抑菌物質初步分析鑑定-------------141
伍、結論---------------------------------------------------------------143
陸、參考文獻--------------------------------------------------------146
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