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研究生:林麗卿
研究生(外文):Lee -Ching Lin
論文名稱:芳香族碳氫化合物在土壤-界面活性劑吸附微胞系統吸附性之探討
論文名稱(外文):The Sorption of Aromatic Hydrocarbons on Surfactant-Modified Soils
指導教授:葉桂君葉桂君引用關係
指導教授(外文):Kuei Jyum Yeh
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立屏東科技大學
系所名稱:環境工程與科學系
學門:工程學門
學類:環境工程學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:1999
畢業學年度:87
語文別:中文
論文頁數:117
中文關鍵詞:界面活性劑吸附微胞甲苯乙苯二甲苯吸附
外文關鍵詞:SurfactantAdmicelleBTEXAdsorption
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近年來,許多土壤與地下水污染整治利用界面活性劑來改變污染物之傳輸速率,以提高整治效果或防止污染物擴散。土壤吸附界面活性劑後會形成吸附微胞,因此本研究目的是了解有機污染物於界面活性劑吸附微胞-土壤-水系統中之吸附性,以運用於整治土壤及地下水污染。
實驗以苯、甲苯、乙苯及二甲苯 (合稱BTEX)作為指標污染物,以Triton X-100(TX-100)、Dodecylpyridinium Chloride (DPC)做為非離子型、陽離子型界面活性劑之代表。由研究結果可歸納出:土壤有機質(SOM)為土壤吸附TX-100之主導因子;陽離子交換容量(CEC)為DPC主要吸附之控制因子。供試土壤對BTEX之吸附量大小為B<T<E @X,與其溶解度有相關性。土壤吸附界面活性劑及BTEX在2小時以內即可達吸附平衡,而界面活性劑達脫附平衡之時間則需要8-16小時,由此可見吸附快而脫附較慢。供試土壤添加界面活性劑形成吸附微胞後,對苯之吸附量,隨著加入苯濃度增加而提高。加入DPC吸附微胞,對於苯之吸附量增加百分比為200-250﹪,較TX-100(100-150﹪)大。雖然DPC吸附微胞量較多,但以單位吸附微胞量所能增加之苯吸附量來說,反而是TX-100比較大。
This study evaluate the sorption of organic pollutants onto surfactant-modified soils. The results can be applied to the remediation of contaminated soil and groundwater system. Benzene, toluene, ethyl-benzene and o-xylene ( BTEX ) were selected as the index compounds in this research. DPC and TX-100 were used to represent the cationic and nonionic surfactant.
The results of the experiment show that the amount of cationic surfactant (DPC) sorbed on the soils is proportional to the CEC value of the soils .On the other hand, the amount of nonionic surfactant (TX-100) sorbed on the soils is affected by the organic content of the soil . The sorption of surfactant reached equilibrium in less than 2 hours , whereas the desorption took about 16 hours. In addition , the amount of BTEX sorbed to the soils are related to their solubility .The presence of surfactant admicelle strongly increased soil sorption capacity of benzene. The soil containing TX-100 admicelle can sorb about 0.1-2.0mg of benzene per mg of surfactant , which is about 10 times of those containing DPC admicelle.
第一章 前言……………………………………………………….1
第二章 文獻回顧………………………………………………….3
2.1土壤與地下水污染現況與整治技術………………………..3
2.2界面活性劑之特性與分類…………………………………..5
2.3界面活性劑在土壤與地下水系統整治之應用……………10
2.4吸附基本理論………………………………………………15
2.4.1 吸附種類………………………………………………15
2.4.2 等溫吸附曲線………………………………………....18
2.5 動力學……………………………………………………...22
2.5.1 反應速率……………………………………………....23
2.5.2 反應級數………………………………………………26
2.6有機污染物在土壤-水系統中之吸附作用影響…………..30
2.7土壤對界面活性劑之主要吸附機制………………………35
2.8界面活性劑對有機污染物在土壤-水系統中之作用影響
…………………………………………………………….38
第三章 實驗材料與方法…………………………………….…42
3.1實驗流程………………………………………………….42
3.2測試土壤……………………………………………….…42
3.2.1土樣採集………………………………………….…42
3.2.2土壤基本性質分析………………………………….44
3.3界面活性劑………………………………………………44
3.3.1界面活性劑之特性……………………………….…44
3.3.2界面活性劑檢量線製備及臨界微胞濃度(CMC)測定
…………………………………………………………45
3.3.3土壤對界面活性劑溶液吸附、脫附平衡實驗……….47
3.4芳香族碳氫化合物(BTEX)………………………………..48
3.4.1有機污染物之特性(BETX)…………………………....48
3.4.2土壤對有機污染物之吸附實驗………………….……52
3.4.3含界面活性劑吸附微胞之土壤對有機污染物之吸附實驗
……………………………………………………52
3.4.4有機污染物(BTEX)之分析方法………………………53
3.5實驗設備………………………………………………….53
3.6實驗試劑……………………………………………….…57
第四章結果與討論……………………………………………..58
4.1土壤基本性質…………………………………………….58
4.2界面活性劑基本性質…………………………………….61
4.3土壤-水系統對界面活性劑之吸附、脫附實驗…………..64
4.3.1土壤-水系統對界面活性劑之等溫吸附實驗…………64
4.3.2土壤-水系統對界面活性劑之吸附、脫附動力………67
4.4土壤-水系統對芳香族化合物BTEX之吸附……………..86
4.4.1 BTEX之等溫吸附曲線…………………………….86
4.4.2 BTEX之吸附動力……………………………………..94
4.5含界面活性劑吸附微胞之土壤-水系統對Benzene(苯)之吸附實驗
………………………………………………….99
第五章結論與建議…………………………………………….106
5.1結論………………………………………………………..106
5.2建議…………………………………………………….….107
參考文獻………………………………………………………...108
附錄……………………………………………………………...117
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