(54.236.58.220) 您好!臺灣時間:2021/02/28 09:42
字體大小: 字級放大   字級縮小   預設字形  
回查詢結果

詳目顯示:::

我願授權國圖
: 
twitterline
研究生:林俊輝
研究生(外文):LIN CHUNG-HEI
論文名稱:寒害對本省三種常用百慕達草生理與生長之影響
論文名稱(外文):EFFECTS OF CHILLING ON THE PHYSIOLOGY AND GROWTH OF THREE COMMONLY GROWN BERMUDAGRASS CULTIVARS IN TAIWAN
指導教授:謝清祥謝清祥引用關係
指導教授(外文):Ching - Hsiang Hsieh
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立屏東科技大學
系所名稱:熱帶農業研究所
學門:農業科學學門
學類:一般農業學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:1999
畢業學年度:87
語文別:中文
論文頁數:85
中文關鍵詞:寒害百慕達草
外文關鍵詞:CHILLINGBERMUDAGRASS
相關次數:
  • 被引用被引用:4
  • 點閱點閱:164
  • 評分評分:系統版面圖檔系統版面圖檔系統版面圖檔系統版面圖檔系統版面圖檔
  • 下載下載:0
  • 收藏至我的研究室書目清單書目收藏:0
本研究之目的即以本省氣候型態設定不同溫度處理,試驗分 析暖季型草坪草類之百慕達草在低溫寒害下之生理與生長之變化,並在寒流來襲時於本省不同地區進行現場採樣分析與調查為比對,期以生長箱試驗的結果建立一模式,應用在預測寒害將對百慕達草造成生理及生長影響之程度。試驗分別於環控植物生長箱內,設定不同溫度處理及田間實地採樣進行觀察分析。在環控生長箱以百慕達草〝Tifgreen〞[Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers.× C.transvaalensis Burtt-Davy]、〝Tifway〞與〝Tifdwarf〞[Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers.× C.transvaalensis Burtt-Davy]為試驗材料,分別設定(日溫/夜溫)32/25℃、25/18℃、18/13℃、15/8℃及13/5℃等五種不同溫度處理。田間實地採樣係分別擇定本省北、中、南部各一高爾夫球場為樣區,以果嶺為採樣點,草種均為〝Tifdwarf〞,採集寒流當日、三日後及一週後之草樣。試驗結果顯示:在生長箱試驗中,低溫處理(15/8℃, 13/5℃)下三草種均明顯地有草鮮重、株高減少及覆蓋率下降與草色衰褪等情況;葉綠素含量在低溫下會降低,類胡蘿蔔素含量的變化不顯著,但低溫初期略有增加的情況,而花青素在低溫初期則會有明顯大幅增加的情況;然而各植物色素含量之變化與外在草色的呈現並無顯著相關性。水溶性蛋白質、可溶性糖及澱粉含量在低溫時也會有大量增加(累積)的情況。參試草種中以〝Tifgreen〞在生長表現及生理變化上顯現有較佳之耐寒性,而〝Tifway〞顯得耐寒性較差。在實地採樣分析中,內在的生理改變均類似在生長箱試驗的低溫處理中之情況。但南部地區由於所遭受的低溫不若北部及中部地區低,因此在生理變化上沒有如北部及中部地區明顯且劇烈的反應。

Previous research on bermudagrass exposed to different temperatures region showed that when the grass exposed to low temperatures, the plant a complete lost its pigmentation and became dormant. This reduced growth and subsequent discoloration is result of physiological disruptions, which are referred to as chilling injury. However, according to the observations in sub-tropical and tropical area such as Taiwan, the responses are somewhat different. Thus, this research focuses mainly on the growth and physiological responses of three commonly used bermudagrass cultivars in Taiwan when it was exposed to chilling temperature. To investigate the variation of pigment contents that correlated with turf colors, two different experiment were conducted. First, three commonly used bermudagrass cultivars 〝Tifgreen〞、〝Tifway〞and〝Tifdwarf〞were grown in controlled environment with 32/25℃、25/18℃、18/13℃、15/8℃ and 13/5℃(day/night ℃) treatments. Second, field samples of “Tifdwarf” bermudagrass in golf coarse greens from different locations in Taiwan were collected and analyzed for their physiological responses when temperature were below 15℃ in winter of December 1998 to February 1999. The results showed that response of bermudagrass to chilling were leaf discoloration, reduce turfgrasses density, reduced fresh weight and decreased plant hight. The physiological responses to the chilling indicated a significant change of pigment content following exposure to chilling conditions. The contents of chlorophyll decreased with prolong exposure to chilling conditions. The carotenoid contents were not significantly changed, and anthocyanins contents were greatly increased during early stages of chilling conditions. However, the exchange of pigment contents were not significantly correlated with turf color rating. The contents of soluble protein, soluble sugar and starch were increased or accumulated with extended chilling conditions. With low temperature treatments, 〝Tifgreen〞showed less variation on growth and physiological responses and was more cold-tolerent then 〝Tifway〞and〝Tifdwarf〞.In field tests similar results were obtained. The low temperatures of southern Taiwan were not as significant or prolong as in the north or central parts of Taiwan, hence “Tifdwarf” turf showed no significant physiological change during the winter.

壹、 前言…………………………………………….……….1
貳、 前人研究
一、 百慕達草之品種與特性 ………………..………...3
二、 寒害的發生 ……………………………….………4
三、寒害對百慕達草生理與代謝之影響
(一)、光合作用的降低 …………….………………5
(二)、呼吸作用受擾亂 …………………………….5
(三)、碳水化合物的代謝與合成受阻 …………..6
(四)、蛋白質的合成與代謝速率降低 …………..7
(五)、植物色素的變化 …………………………..7
(六)、內生植物荷爾蒙含量的變化 ……………..8
(七)、其它 ………………………………………..8
四、寒害對百慕達草生長與形態之影響
(一)、生長發育減緩 ………………………….….9
(二)、植株形態的變化 …………………….…….9
(三)、草色的轉變 ………..……………….…….9
(四)、草坪密度及覆蓋率的降低 ………….……10
(五)、病蟲害的滋生 …………………………...10
參、試驗材料與方法
一、 不同溫度階層生長箱試驗
(一)、生長特性調查 ……………………………...11
(二)、內在的細胞色素含量及生理代謝產物
之分析 ……………………………………….12
二、實地採樣分析調查 ………………………… ………14
肆、結果與討論
一、不同溫度階層生長箱試驗結果
(一)、品種間之差異性 ……………………………….15
(二)、不同溫度階層處理下百慕達草各生長及
生理特性反應 ………………………………….25
(三)、百慕達草品種與處理溫度間之交感反應 …….41
(四)、百慕達草於處理期間各植物色素與草色
相關性分析 …………………………………….43
二、實地採樣分析調查 …………………………………..45
參考文獻
附錄
附錄一 草色等級評估標準
附錄二 中央氣象局87年1月-88年3月每日最高
及最低氣溫資料

1. 于景讓 1974 植物對於不適溫度反應及可能的治療方法 科學農業
22(5): 223-233。
2. 朱鈞 謝兆樞 張新軒 1979 植物對極端溫度之生理反應 科學農業
27(12):386-391。
3. 朱德民 1995 植物與環境逆境 第四章:植物與溫度逆境 明文書局
4. 朱鈞 李澤民 1991 植物荷爾蒙對植物耐冷性之調節 中華農藝
1(1):207-224。
5. 林信輝 陳意昌 1993 台灣地區高爾夫球場草皮性狀與管理之研究
中華民國雜草學會會刊 14(2):103-124。
6. 胡叔良 賴明洲 董令善 1991 草坪學及應用技術. 地景出版公司
7. 陳志一 1996 草坪栽培管理 淑馨出版社。
8. 黃文達 張新軒 1996 百慕達草之性狀與利用 除草劑安全使用與草類
利用管理研討會專刊 p.245-252。
9. 楊之遠 朱鈞 1982 植物之冷害與抗冷性 科學農業 30(12):444-457。
10. 顏俊士 1981 台灣之寒害 氣象學報季刊 7(2):23-34。
11. Ahring, R. M., and R. M. Irving 1969. A laboratory method of determining
cold hardiness in bermudagrass, Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers. Crop Sci.
9:615-618.
12. Alison, H. K, J. H., J. Williams,and C. H. Foyer. 1997. Effect of chilling on
carbon assimilation, enzyme ctivation, and photosynthetic electron trans-
port in the absence of photoinhibition in maize leaves. Plant physiol. 114:
1039-1046.
13. Anderson, I. C., and D. S. Robertson. 1960. Role of carotenoids in
protecting chlorophyll from photodestruction. Plant physiol. 35:531-534.
14. Anderson, J. A., M. P. Kenna., and C. M .Taliaferro. 1988. Cold hardiness of
'Midiron' and 'Tifgreen' bermudagrass. HortScience 23(4):748-750.
15. Andrew, P. and M. G. Mullins. 1976. Changes in anthocyanin and phenolic
contain of grapevine leaf and fruit tissues with sucrose, nitrate, and
abscisic acid. Plant physiol. 58:468-472.
16. Beard, B. James. 1996. Low-temperature kill and ice sheets. Golf Course
Management. May/1996:60-64.
17. Belesky, D. P., H. D. Perry, W. R. Windham, E. L. Mathias, and J. M. Fedder
1991. Productivity and quality of bermudagrass in a cool temperate
environment. Agron. J. 83:810-813.
18. Birth, G. S., and G. R. McVey. 1968. Measuring the color of growing turf
with a reflectance spectrophotometer. Agron. J. 60:640-642.
19. Coney, H. M. 1982. Chilling injury of crops of tropical and subtropical
origin. HortScience 17(2):162-165.
20. Davis, D. L. and W. R. Gilbert. 1970. Winter hardiness and changes in
soluble protein fractions of bermudagrass. Crop Sci. 10:7-9.
21. Dipaola, J. M., and B. J. Beard. 1992. Turfgrass — Physiological effect of
temperature stress:Ⅳ.Turfgrass chilling stress. ASA-CSSA-SSSA,
Agronomy No.32:248-252.
22. Dipaola, J.M., K. J. Karnok, and J. B. Beard. 1981. Growth, color, and
chloroplast pigment content of bermudagrass turfs under chilling
conditions as influenced by gibberellic acid. p527~534.
In R.W.Sheard(ed.) Proc. 4th Int.Turfgrass Res.Conf.
23. Downs, R. J., H. W. Siegelman, and W. L. Butler. 1965. Photoreceptive
pigment for anthocyanin synthesis in apple skin. Nature Feb.:909-910.
24. Dudeck, A. E., and C.H.Peacock. 1985. "Tifdwarf" bermudagrass growth
respones to carboxin and GA3 during suboptimum temperatures.
HortScience 20(5):936- 938.
25. Dunn, J. H., and C. J. Nelson. 1974. Chemical changes occurring in three
bermudagrass turf cultivars in relation to cold hardiness. Agro. J. 66:28-
26. Gatschet, M. J., C. M. Taliaferro, J. A. Anderson, D. R.Porter, and M. P.
Anderson. 1994. Cold acclimation and alteration in protein synthesis in
bermudagrass crowns. J.Amer. Soc. Hort.Sci.119(3):477-480.
27. Graham, D. and B.D.Patterson. 1982. Responses of plant to low, non-
freezing trmperatures:Proteins, metabolism and acclimation. Ann. Rew.
Plant Physiol. 33:347~372.
28. Gusta, L.V.,R.W.Wilen, and P. Fu. 1996. Low temperature stress tolerance:
The role of abscisic acid, sugars, and heat-stable proteins. HortScience
31(1):39-46.
29. Hilliard, J. H., and S. H. West. 1970. Starch accumulation associated with
growthreduction at low temperatures in tropical plant. Science.168:494-496.
30.Johnson, G.V. 1974. Simple procedure for quantitative analysis of turfgrass
color.Agro. J. 66:457-459.

QRCODE
 
 
 
 
 
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               
第一頁 上一頁 下一頁 最後一頁 top
系統版面圖檔 系統版面圖檔