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研究生:李甯
研究生(外文):Lee Ning
論文名稱:功能溝通訓練對促進無口語自閉症兒童溝通行為成效之研究
論文名稱(外文):A Study on the Effect of Functional Communication Training to Promote Communication in Non-verbal Autistic Children
指導教授:張正芬張正芬引用關係
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立臺灣師範大學
系所名稱:特殊教育研究所
學門:教育學門
學類:特殊教育學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:1999
畢業學年度:87
語文別:中文
中文關鍵詞:功能評量功能溝通訓練無口語自閉症兒童溝通行為問題行為
外文關鍵詞:functional assessmentfunctional communication trainingnon-verbal autistic childrencommunicationproblem behavior
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本研究的目的,在於瞭解功能溝通訓練對促進無口語自閉症兒童溝通行為以及改善其問題行為的效果。個案有兩位,均為就讀台北縣國小啟智班的自閉症兒童,分別具有發出ㄚㄣ怪聲以及咬手的問題行為。本研究採用單一受試研究之A-B-B*設計進行之。
研究者對兩個個案的問題行為進行功能評量,首先以訪談及觀察的方式形成其問題行為功能的假設,之後以系統操弄的方式驗證該假設。在假設獲得驗證後,研究者擬定功能等值的溝通行為於隔離情境中進行介入。當個案的溝通行為出現相當的次數後,研究者進入自然情境觀察個案溝通行為和問題行為改善之類化效果。
本研究的結果如下:
一﹑功能溝通訓練能有效促進無口語自閉症兒童的溝通行為
本研究的兩個個案均出現教學目標的溝通行為,同時個案甲的進步超出原先擬定的圖卡溝通目標而進步到特定語詞溝通。個案乙也由原先被動點頭的教學目標進步到主動點頭的溝通行為。
二﹑功能溝通訓練的效果能有效類化到自然情境中
本研究兩個個案之溝通行為均能類化到自然情境中。然而個案甲的類化成效比較慢,在經過了三階段的類化情境才成功﹔個案乙的類化成效較佳,第一個階段就已達成。
三﹑功能溝通訓練對改善無口語自閉症兒童問題行為的效果未如預期顯著
個案甲在出現溝通行為之後,其問題行為並沒有立刻下降,直到介入後期溝通行為逐漸取代問題行為的功能時,其問題行為才慢慢的下降。
個案乙的問題行為,由於其溝通行為要求的物品不適當﹑研究者對增強物進行延宕﹑或是誤解個案的意思,導致溝通行為未能總是達成要求的功能,故其問題行為降低的效果,在本研究進行的時間內並不顯著。
本研究並針對未來研究以及教學上的事項提出建議。
The main purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of functional communication training to promote communication and reduce problem behavior in non-verbal autistic children. Subjects were two autistic children , one with bizarre speech and the other with hand biting behavior. Researcher used the A-B-B* design to examine the effects.
The research implemented functional assessment to find out the functions of problem behaviors. After that, the author chose a communication behavior with the same function of the problem behavior to intervene. After subjects had learned the new way to communicate, the author stopped teaching and recorded the effects of the training in natural settings.
The result indicated that the functional communication training can promote communication in two subjects in the study, and the positive effects could generalize to the natural settings. It also indicated that the effect to reduce problem behaviors was not as good as expected.
Implications for practice and further research are recommended on the basis of these results.
第一章 緒論
第一節 研究動機與目的………………………1
第二節 待答問題………………………………3
第三節 名詞釋義………………………………4
第二章 文獻探討
第一節 無口語自閉症者溝通行為的問題與介入
方式……………………………………7
第二節 自閉症兒童問題行為的種類和介入原則
…………………………………………18
第三節 功能評量的內涵與應用………………23
第四節 功能溝通訓練的內涵與應用…………31
第三章 研究方法
第一節 研究對象………………………………38
第二節 研究架構………………………………44
第三節 研究設計………………………………45
第四節 功能溝通訓練的實施…………………53
第五節 研究工具………………………………66
第六節 研究步驟………………………………70
第四章 結果與討論
第一節 問題行為功能評量結果………………77
第二節 個案甲溝通行為與問題行為資料分析82
第三節 個案乙溝通行為與問題行為資料分析89
第四節 討論……………………………………96
第五章 結論與建議
第一節 結論 …………………………………104
第二節 研究限制與建議 ……………………107
參考書目 …………………………………………112
附錄一 問題行為調查表…………………………120
附錄二 自閉症兒童基本溝通行為評量表………124
附錄三 增強物調查表……………………………130
附錄四 ABC 記錄表………………………………136
附錄五 溝通行為記錄表(一)…………………137
附錄六 溝通行為記錄表(二)…………………138
附錄七 目標行為次數記錄表……………………139
附錄八 系統操弄情境行為次數記錄表…………140
附錄九 家長同意函………………………………142
附錄十 老師同意函………………………………143
附錄十一功能溝通訓練成效教師評量問卷(一)144
附錄十二功能溝通訓練成效教師評量問卷(二)145
附錄十三功能溝通訓練成效家長評量問卷(一)146
圖表目次
表目錄
表3-1 個案甲介入各階段教學差異摘要表…………62
表3-2 個案乙介入階段教學重點……………………63
表3-3 個案甲類化各階段目標行為與情境差異摘要表
…………………………………………………65
表3-4 個案乙類化情境目標行為與情境摘要表……65
表4-1 個案甲溝通行為階段內資料摘要……………83
表4-2 個案甲溝通行為階段間資料摘要表…………84
表4-3 個案甲問題行為階段內資料摘要表…………86
表4-4 個案甲問題行為階段間資料摘要表…………87
表4-5 個案乙被動的點頭行為階段內資料摘要表…90
表4-6 個案乙被動的點頭行為階段間資料摘要表…91
表4-7 個案乙主動的點頭行為階段內資料摘要表…92
表4-8 個案乙主動的點頭行為階段間資料摘要表…92
表4-9 個案乙問題行為階段內資料摘要表…………94
表4-10 個案乙問題行為階段間資料摘要表…………94
圖目錄
圖3-1 個案甲實驗設計圖……………………………46
圖3-2 個案乙實驗設計圖……………………………46
圖4-1 個案甲問題行為系統操弄結果………………78
圖4-2 個案乙問題行為系統操弄結果………………79
圖4-3 個案甲溝通行為曲線圖………………………82
圖4-4 個案甲問題行為曲線圖………………………85
圖4-5 個案乙被動點頭行為曲線圖…………………89
圖4-6 個案乙主動點頭行為曲線圖…………………91
圖4-7 個案乙問題行為曲線圖………………………93
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