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研究生:程秀蘭
研究生(外文):Hsiu-Lan Cheng
論文名稱:大學生知覺父母權威性與其生氣歷程、憂鬱傾向之相關研究
論文名稱(外文):The Relationships among Perceived Parental Authority, Anger Process and Depression of College Students
指導教授:吳麗娟吳麗娟引用關係
指導教授(外文):Li-Chuan Wu
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立臺灣師範大學
系所名稱:教育心理與輔導研究所
學門:教育學門
學類:綜合教育學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:1999
畢業學年度:87
語文別:中文
論文頁數:173
中文關鍵詞:父母權威性生氣憂鬱大學生生氣歷程教養方式教養態度情緒青少年
外文關鍵詞:Perceived Parental AuthorityAngerAnger ProcessDepressionCollege Students
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本研究包含兩個子研究,「研究一」旨在探討大學生知覺的父母權威性與大學生生氣歷程、憂鬱傾向的關係;「研究二」旨在考驗大學生知覺的父母權威性與大學生生氣歷程、憂鬱傾向之徑路模式。本研究以大台北地區九所公私立大學及獨立學院之大一到大三學生為研究對象,共計765名,並隨機分為兩個子樣本以供「研究一」及「研究二」之用,分別為360人、405人。本研究採問卷調查法進行資料收集,所使用的研究工具包括「父母權威性量表」、「李氏生氣歷程量表」、「貝克氏憂鬱量表」。「研究一」將第一個子樣本調查所得的資料,以典型相關分析、同時多元迴歸分析、階層式多元迴歸分析等統計方法處理,探討各研究變項之相關情形。本研究再以「研究一」所得結果為基礎,並參考相關文獻,提出「大學生知覺父母權威性與其生氣歷程、憂鬱傾向之徑路模式」,進而以第二個子樣本進行「研究二」的徑路分析及考驗。本研究主要發現如下:
一、 大學生知覺的父母權威性與大學生生氣歷程之間有典型相關存在。其關係組型為:「母親專制權威」、「父親專制權威」與「生氣前置情境頻率」、「生氣激起狀態」為正相關;「母親縱容溺愛」、「母親開明權威」、「父親開明權威」與「生氣前置情境頻率」、「生氣激起狀態」為負相關,其關係型態為反方向。
二、 大學生知覺的父母權威性可以有效預測大學生的憂鬱傾向。父母權威性的六個預測變項可以解釋憂鬱傾向變異量的6.8 。
三、 大學生的生氣歷程可以有效預測其憂鬱傾向。生氣歷程七個預測變項可以解釋憂鬱傾向變異量的15.7 。
四、 生氣表達方式可以有效預測憂鬱傾向。生氣表達方式的五個預測變項可以解釋憂鬱傾向變異量的8.6 。
五、 在排除五種生氣表達方式的影響後,以「生氣前置情境頻率」、「生氣激起狀態」為預測變項時,可以有效預測「憂鬱傾向」,其獨自對憂鬱傾向預測的變異量為7.1 ,可以顯著增加對憂鬱傾向的預測力。
六、 「大學生知覺父母權威性與其生氣歷程、憂鬱傾向之徑路模式」,可以被接受用來說明本研究各變項之間的關係。本研究所提出的徑路模式可以解釋憂鬱傾向總變異量的17 。
七、 大學生知覺的父母權威性中,主要是「母親專制權威」對大學生生氣前置情境頻率會有正向影響,「父親開明權威」對大學生生氣前置情境頻率會有負向影響;父母權威性是直接影響大學生的「生氣前置情境頻率」,再透過「生氣前置情境頻率」間接影響大學生的「憂鬱傾向」。除此之外,另一影響途徑是:大學生知覺的父母權威性直接影響「生氣前置情境頻率」,再透過「生氣激起狀態」,再經由「將生氣放在心中不表達出來」間接來影響大學生的「憂鬱傾向」。
八、 大學生的生氣歷程中,「生氣前置情境頻率」直接影響憂鬱傾向;或是經由「生氣激起狀態」,然後再透過「將生氣放在心中不表達出來」來間接影響憂鬱傾向。生氣歷程中,「生氣激起狀態」並不直接影響憂鬱傾向,而是透過生氣表達方式中的「將生氣放在心中不表達出來」來間接影響憂鬱傾向。
最後根據本研究結果進行討論,以作為諮商輔導、親職教育與未來進一步研究之建議。
The study consisted of two sub-studies. Study one investigated the relationships among perceived parental authority, anger process and depression of college students. Study two tested the hypothesized path model of perceived parental authority, anger process and depression. The sample consisted of 765 students from nine universities and colleges in Taipei area, and was randomly assigned to study one and study two. The research instruments used in this study were “Parental Authority Questionnaire”, “Li Anger Process Questionnaire” and “Beck Depression Inventory”. Data obtained in study one were analyzed by canonical correlation analysis, simultaneous multiple regression analysis, and hierarchical multiple regression analysis. Data obtained in study two were analyzed by path analysis. The main findings are as follows:
1. The result of canonical correlation analysis revealed that perceived parental authority was significantly associated with anger process by a canonical variate. The canonical relation coefficient is .579. The first canonical root indicated that individuals who perceived more maternal authoritarian, more paternal authoritarian , less maternal permissive, less maternal authoritative and less paternal authoritative experienced more anger antecedents and anger arousal.
2. According to the result of simultaneous multiple regression analysis, perceived parental authority significantly predict depression. The six variables of perceived parental authority account for 6.8  of the variance in depression.
3. According to the result of simultaneous multiple regression analysis, the anger process significantly predict depression. The seven variables of the anger process account for 15.7  of the variance in depression.
4. According to the result of simultaneous multiple regression analysis, anger expression significantly predict depression. The five variables of the anger expressions account for 8.6  of the variance in depression.
5. According to the result of hierarchical multiple regression analysis, while the influence of the five anger expression variables was excluded out, anger antecedents and anger arousal could significantly predict depression. They could alone account for 7.1  of the variance in depression and could significantly add the power to predict depression.
6. According to the result of path analysis, the emperical data supported the hypothesized path model. The model could account for 17  of the total variance in depression.
7. In the path model, there were significant direct and indirect paths. Maternal authoritarian had direct positive influence on anger antecedents and indirect positive influence on depression, which identified individuals who perceived their mothers as more authoritarian were prone to experience more anger antecedents and therefore prone to depression. Whereas paternal authoritative had direct negative influence on anger antecedents and indirectly negative influence on depression, identified individuals who perceived their fathers as more authoritative were less likely to experience anger antecedents and then less prone to depression. While, maternal authoritarian led a direct path to anger antecedents, then via anger arousal and then via anger-in and finally led to depression, with the positive influence. On the other hand, paternal authoritative led a direct path to anger antecedents, then via anger arousal and then via anger-in and finally led to depression, with negative influence.
8. Among the anger process, anger antecedents directly influence depression, or via anger arousal and then via anger-in which indirectly influenced depression. Anger arousal did not have direct influence on depression, but had the indirect influence via anger-in on depression.
Based on the findings, implications of this study for counseling and guidance of late adolescent, parenting education and suggestion for the future research were proposed as well.
目 錄
中文摘要
英文摘要
第一章 緒論
第一節 研究動機與目的 1
第二節 研究問題與研究假設 9
第三節 名詞釋義 11
第二章 文獻探討
第一節 父母權威性的理論基礎與評量 14
第二節 生氣的理論基礎與評量 25
第三節 憂鬱傾向的意義與評量 44
第四節 父母權威性與生氣歷程的相關文獻與研究 49
第五節 父母權威性、生氣歷程、憂鬱傾向的相關文獻與研究 54
第三章 研究方法
第一節 研究架構與研究設計 65
第二節 研究對象 68
第三節 研究工具 72
第四節 實施程序 84
第五節 資料分析 85
第四章 研究結果
第一節 大學生知覺的父母權威性、大學生生氣歷程、大學生憂鬱傾向
之相關情形 86
第二節 大學生知覺父母權威性與其生氣歷程、憂鬱傾向之徑路模式
考驗 99
第五章 討論
第一節 大學生知覺的父母權威性、大學生生氣歷程、大學生憂鬱傾向
的關係 106
第二節 大學生知覺父母權威性與其生氣歷程、憂鬱傾向之徑路模式 127
第三節 綜合討論 135
第六章 結論與建議
第一節 結論 141
第二節 研究限制與建議 145
參考文獻
一、中文部分 160
二、英文部分 162
附錄一 「父母權威性量表」原編者同意修訂函
附錄二 「李氏生氣歷程量表」原編者同意使用函
附錄三 「貝克氏憂鬱量表」修訂者同意使用涵
附錄四 「父母權威性量表」之項目分析結果
附錄五 「父母權威性量表」驗證式因素分析結果
附錄六 本研究所使用之研究工具
圖表目錄
圖3-1-1 研究架構 65
圖4-1-1 大學生所知覺的父母權威性、大學生生氣歷程的典型相關結構圖 91
圖4-2-1 大學生知覺父母權威性與其生氣歷程、憂鬱傾向之徑路模式 103
圖5-1-1 學生所知覺的父母權威性與生氣歷程的關係組型 107
表3-2-1 有效樣本人數分配表 69
表3-2-2 「研究一」及「研究二」樣本之人數、性別、年級分配表 71
表3-3-1 生氣表達量表五個分量表與柯氏性格量表五個分量表之相關 79
表3-3-2 大學生生氣前置情境量表因素二之題目平均值、標準差、因素負
荷量、內部一致性及再測信度係數 81
表4-1-1 「樣本一」大學生所知覺的父母權威性、生氣歷程、憂鬱傾向分
數之平均數與標準差 87
表4-1-2 父母權威性量表與李氏生氣歷程量表各分量表之積差相關矩陣 88
表4-1-3 大學生知覺的父母權威性與大學生生氣歷程之典型相關分析摘要
表 89
表4-1-4 「母親縱容溺愛、母親專制權威、母親開明權威、父親縱容溺愛、
父親專制權威、父親開明權威」預測「憂鬱傾向」之多元迴歸分
析摘要表 92
表4-1-5 「母親縱容溺愛、母親專制權威、母親開明權威、父親縱容溺愛、
父親專制權威、父親開明權威」預測「憂鬱傾向」之多元迴歸係
數表 92
表4-1-6 「生氣前置情境頻率、生氣激起狀態、以語言表達生氣、以動作
表達生氣、以間接方式表達生氣、將生氣放在心中不表達出來、
控制生氣」預測「憂鬱傾向」之多元迴歸分析摘要表 94
表4-1-7 「生氣前置情境頻率、生氣激起狀態、以語言表達生氣、以動作
表達生氣、以間接方式表達生氣、將生氣放在心中不表達出來、
控制生氣」預測「憂鬱傾向」之多元迴歸係數表 94
表4-1-8 「以語言表達生氣、以動作表達生氣、以間接方式表達生氣、將
生氣放在心中不表達出來、控制生氣」預測「憂鬱傾向」之多元
迴歸變異分析摘要表 96
表4-1-9 「以語言表達生氣、以動作表達生氣、以間接方式表達生氣、將
生氣放在心中不表達出來、控制生氣」預測「憂鬱傾向」之多元
迴歸係數表 96
表4-1-10 階層式多元迴歸模式變異數分析摘要表 97
表4-2-1 「樣本二」受試樣本在大學生所知覺的父母權威性、生氣歷程、
憂鬱傾向各研究變項的平均數與標準差 100
表4-2-2 「樣本二」受試樣本在大學生所知覺的父母權威性、生氣歷程、
憂鬱傾向各研究變項的積差相關 101
表5-2-1 五種生氣表達方式殘餘誤差之相關矩陣 132
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黃琴雅(民81):不同產序子女之生活適應、學業成就及對父母管教態度知覺差異之比較研究。私立文化大學家政研究所碩士論文。
葉啟政(民66):因徑分析與其問題。民族社會學報,15期,83-120頁。
詹美涓(民81):青少年知覺之父母支持與青少年自我價值之相關研究。國立台灣師範大學家政研究所碩士論文。
蔡秀玲(民86):大學男女學生依附關係、個體化與適應之相關研究。國立台灣師範大學教育心理與輔導研究所碩士論文。
歐陽儀(民87):教養方式與依附關係代間傳遞模式之研究。國立台灣師範大學教育心理與輔導研究所碩士論文。
鍾敏菁(民79):性別、自尊、武斷、同理心與生氣表達的關係。國立政治大學教育研究所碩士論文。
劉修全(民86):青少年的父母教養方式、依附-個體化、與自我統合之相關研究。國立高雄師範大學輔導研究所碩士論文。
二、英文部分
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