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研究生:彭煥勝
研究生(外文):Peng, Huan-Sheng
論文名稱:歐文的普及教育理念及其實踐--以新拉納克學校為例(1800-1824)
論文名稱(外文):The Idea and Practice of Robert Owen’s Popular Education:An Example of NewLanark School,1800-1824
指導教授:黃光雄黃光雄引用關係林逢祺林逢祺引用關係
指導教授(外文):Kuang-Hsiung HwangFerng-Chyi Lin
學位類別:博士
校院名稱:國立臺灣師範大學
系所名稱:教育研究所
學門:教育學門
學類:綜合教育學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:1999
畢業學年度:87
語文別:中文
論文頁數:298
中文關鍵詞:歐文戴爾布坎南新拉納克普及教育英國十九世紀初期教育改革
外文關鍵詞:Robert OwenDavid DaleJ. BuchananNew Lanrakpopular educationGreat Britainearly nineteen-centuryeducational reform
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歐文的普及教育理念及其實踐--以新拉納克學校為例
( 1800-1824)
十九世紀初期,英國政府視教育為私人的事務,尚未有發展普及國家教育的制度,因此這時期民間宗教團體或私人性質的貧民學校,則扮演相當重要的角色。由於受到法國大革命及工業革命等政治、經濟、社會環境變遷之衝擊,有識之士倡導普及教育作為消弭階級衝突、社會貧窮及罪惡之途徑。歐文身為棉紡織企業主,卻深刻反省工業制度帶給社會之弊病,而呼籲政府設置普及國家教育制度,讓所有人不分階級、宗教、性別、種族之差異,皆有受同等教育的機會。
1800年歐文在新拉納克開展其社會改革的事業,其中他視教育為此改革的核心。他為了創建新拉納克學校,兩度與公司的合夥人因此事衝突而拆夥,幸得第三度事業合夥人對普及教育之認同,而於1816年創建有制度及規模的新拉納克學校。歐文主張人之性格形成為外在環境所決定,因此視教育為萬能的功效。藉由教育的作用,塑造良好性格的個體,再由他們建立理想的新社會。新拉納克學校以自然感官及兒童中心為其教育的方針,堅決禁止教師使用體罰,鼓勵教師以愛心、耐心及誘導的方式,激發學童自治及主動學習的精神。師生倫理及同儕關係融洽和諧,令參觀者驚訝不已。1816-1824年間,世界各地慕名前來參觀新拉納克學校者駱繹不絕,成為英國當時期重要的模範學校。
本研究從宏觀的角度回顧歐文在教育史上的地位,新拉納克學校與蘭開斯特(J. Lancaster)、貝爾(A. Bell)導生制(monitorial system)學校之比較,做縱向面及橫向面的分析,期能了解歐文在教育史地位的評價及新拉納克學校的特殊意義。最後,筆者從歐文在新拉納克學校所扮演的角色,歐文作為教育家的地位,新拉納克學校的成就,教育理想與現實之間的差距等四個向度,重估歐文對於普及教育的理念及其實踐之歷史意義。
The Idea and Practice of Robert Owen’s Popular Education:An Example of NewLanark School,1800-1824
In the early 19th century, British government treated education as private affairs, so there was no State system of popular education. As a result, religious institutions and private schools for the poor played important roles during that period. Seeing the impact caused by the change of politics, economy, and social environment, like French Revolution and the industrial revolution, men of insight proposed popular education be the method of deleting the conflicts among different classes, the poverty, and the crime. As the head of the cotton mills, Owen saw the defects resulted from industrialization, he appealed to the British government for setting up popular education system to provide equal chance for people no matter what class they belonged to, what religion they believed in, what sex they were, and what race they were.
Owen started his social reform in New Lanark in 1800, and regarded education as the core of it. He even terminated his business partnership twice because of having different opinions about setting up the school with his partners. Therefore, the school was not systematically set up until at last he met his third partner who accepted the ideal of popular education. He asserted that environment decided a person’s character and education would be the most effective factor of all. He wanted to make individuals have good characters by means of education and then let them build an ideal new society. The educational principles of the New Lanark School were child-centered instruction and learning with senses. Instead of using corporal punishment, teachers there helped students establish autonomy and learn actively. People who visited this school were amazed by the harmony between teachers and students and peer group. Between 1816 and 1824, admirers from all over the world came to see this school, so it became an important model school in Britain at the time.
At first, this study reviews Owen’s status in educational history from the viewpoint of the historiography of education. Besides, the writer compares the New Lanark School with J. Lancaster and A. Bell monitorial system schools. From longitudinal and cross-sectional analysis in order to understand the evaluation Owen gained and the meaning of setting up the school. At last, the author re-evaluates the idea and practice of Owen’s popular education through the role he played in the school, his status as an educationist, the achievement of the New Lanark School, and the gap between ideal and reality.
封面
目錄
第一章 緒論
第一節 研究動機與目的
第二節 研究問題的敘述
第三節 研究的範圍與方法
第二章 歐文提出普及教育的歷史背景
第一節 經濟、政治、社會環境的變遷
第二節 普及教育運動的興起
第三節 歐文的親身經歷
第三章 歐文的教育觀
第一節 教育的理論基礎--人之性格形塑論
第二節 教育的功用與目標
第三節 教育機會的均等
第四節 教學的原則
第四章 歐文在新拉納克的教育實踐
第一節 新拉納克學校的源起及其獨特性
第二節 新拉納克學校概況
第三節 幼兒學校
第四節 小學
第五章 歐文推動普及教育的經過及其挫折
第一節 第一度合夥時期(1800-1809)
第二節 第二度合夥時期(1809-1813)
第三節 第三度合夥時期(1813-1824)
第六章 歐文推動普及教育的歷史意義
第一節 歐文在西洋教育史地位的歷史回顧
第二節 新拉納克學校與導生制學校教育之比較
第三節 重估歐文教育理念及其實踐之歷史意義
第七章 結論與啟示
第一節 結論
第二節 啟示與未來研究方向
參考書目
壹、英文書目
一、原始史料
(一)歐文著作
Owen, Robert. A New View of Society ,1816. New Jersey:Augustusm Kelley Publishers Reprinted,1972.
------, Letter Published in the London Newspapers of July ,1817, part III, pp.1-21.
----,A Sketch of Some of the Errors and Evils Arising from the Past and Present State of Society, Agu.9,1817, part III, pp.22-31.
------, Address. Delivered at the City of London Tavern, August 14,1817, part III, pp.32-46.
------, Address , August 16,1817, part III,pp.46-50.
-----, Address. Delivered at the adjourned Meeting at the City of London Tavern, August 21,1817, part III,pp.51-63.
----, Further Development of the Plan for the Relief of the Poor, and the Emancipation of Mankind--To the Public, Sept.6,1817, part III, pp.63-83.
----, Observations on the Effect of The Manufacturing System, 1815, part IV, pp.3-20.
----, On the Employment of Children in Manufactories, March 20,1818. part IV, pp.21-30.
----, To British Master Manufacturers, March 30,1818, part IV, pp.30-38.
----, On the Union of Churches and Schools: To His Grace the Archbishop of Canterbury, May 6, 1818, part IV, pp.39-44.
----, Memorial to Robert Owen, of New Lanark in Scotland: To the Governments of Europe and America, Sept. 20, 1818. part 5, pp.3-8.
----, Memorial to Robert Owen, of New Lanark in Scotland: To the Allied Powers , Oct. 22, 1818 . part V, pp.9-27.
*以上2-12筆,輯於Robert Owen, New View of Society. New York: AMS edition, 1972.
-----, Mr Owen''s Speech at a Public Dinner....given to Joseph Lancaster,1812.
-----, A Statement regarding the New Lanark Establishment,1812.
-----, Address delivered to the Inhabitants of New Lanark, 1816.
-----,Peace on Earth- Good Will towards Men!Development of the Plan for the Relief of the Poor,1817.
-----,Address dated September 19th,1817, on Measures for the Immediate Relief of the Poor,1817.
-----,Letter to the Earl of Liverpool on the Employment of Children in Manufactories,1818.
-----,Letter to the Archbishop of Canterbury on the Union of Churches and Schools,1818.
-----,Address to the Master-Manufacturers of Great Britain on the Present existing Evils in the Manufacturing System,1819.
-----,Report to the County of Lanark,1821.
-----,The Life of Robert Owen, Written by Himself,Vol.1,1857.
*以上13-22筆,輯於 G. Claeys(ed.), Selected Works of Robert Owen, Vol.1-4 . London: William Pickering,1993.
Silver, H.(ed.). Robert Owen on Education. London:Cambridge University Press,1969.
(二)官方檔案
The House of Commons, Report of the Minutes of Evidence:Taken before the Select Committee on the State of the Children Employed in the Manufactories of the United Kingdom, 25 April--18 June, 1816.
---------, Report from Select Committee on the Education of the Lower Orders in the Metropolis , 7,14,19 & 20 June, 1816.
Hansard, T.C.(ed.), The Parliamentary Debates,May 1816. New York:Kraus Reprint CO.,1970.
---------, The Parliamentary Debates,July 1846. New York:Kraus Reprint CO.,1970.
(三)同時代史料
A Former Teacher at New Lanrak, Robert Owen at New Larnark. Manchester:Cave and Sever,Pool Fold,1839.
Aiton, J. Mr. Owen’s Objections to Christianity and New View of Society and Education. Edinburgh:James Robertson and Co.,1824.
Allen, William. Life of William Allen, With Selections from his Diaries and Correspondence,Vol.1-3, London:Bennett Publisher, 1846.
Baines, Edward. Mr. Owen’s Establishment at New Lanark, A Failure!!Leeds: Leeds District Board of the Association of All Classes of All Nations, Office, Walton’s Music Saloon, South Parde,1838.
Combe, George. "Phrenological Analysis of Mr. Owen’s New Views of Society" in The Phrenological Journal and Miscellany , Vol.I, Article V. no.2, Dec.1823-Aug.1824, pp.218-37.
M’Gavin,W. The Fundamental Principles of The New Lanark System, Exposed, in a series of Letters to Robert Owen, Esq. Glasgow:Andrew Young,1824.
Macnab, H. G. The New Views of Mr. Owen of Lanark. London:J.Hatchard and Son.,1819.
Owen, Robert D. An Outline of the System of Education at New Lanark. Glasgow:Wardlaw & Cunninghame,1824.
TYRO, The Economist, No.35,Vol.2,August4,1821-March9,1822
二、專書
Altfest, K.C. Robert Owen As Educator. Boston: Twayne Publishers,1977.
Booth, Arthur J. Robert Owen, The Founder of Socialism in England. London: Trubner & Co.,60, Paternoster Row,1869.
Butt, John(ed.) Robert Owen :Prince of Cotton Spinners.Newton Abbot:David & Charles,1971.
Clayton, J. Robert Owen: Pioneer of Social Reforms. London: A. C. Fifield, 1908.
Cole, G. D. H. Robert Owen. Boston: Little, Brown, and Company,1925.
Cole,Margaret. Robert Owen of New Lanark. London: Batchworth Press Ltd., 1953.
Donnachie, I. & Hewitt,G. Historical New Lanark:The Dale and Owen Industrial Community Since 1785. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press Ltd,1993.
Harrison, J.F.C. Quest for the New Moral World . New York: Charles Scribner''s Sons, 1969.
Holyoake, G.J. Life and Last Days of Robert Owen,of New Lanark. London:Booksellers & Publishers,1859.
Joad, C.E.M. Robert Owen, Idealist. Fabian Tract No.182. London:The Fabian Society,1917.
Jones, L. Life, Times, and Labours of Robert Owen. New York: AMS Press,1971.
McCabe, J. Robert Owen. London: Watts & Co,1920.
Morton, A.L. The Life and Ideas of Robert Owen. New York: International Publishers,1969.
Owen, Robert D. Threading My Way. London: Trubner & Co.,57 & 59 Ludgate Hill,1874.
Packard, F.A. Life of Robert Owen. Philadelphia: Ashmead & Evans,1866.
Podmore, Frank. Robert Owen:A Biography . London:George Allen & Unwin LTD,1923.
Pollard, S. & Salt, J. (ed.). Robert Owen:Prophet of the Poor. Lewisburg:Bucknell University Press.1971.
Royle, Edward. Robert Owen and the Commencement of the Millennium:A Study of the Harmony Community. Manchester: Manchester University Press,1997
Sargant, W.L. Robert Owen, and His Social Philosophy . London: Smith, Elder and Co.,1860.
Silver, H. The Concept of Popular Education. London:Macgibbon & Kee,1965.
Siraj-Blatchford, John Robert Owen: Schooling the Innocents. Nottingham: Educational Heretics Press,1997.
三、通史或斷代史
(一)教育通史或斷代史
Adamson, John W. English Education,1789-1902. Cambridge: Cambridge at the University,1964.
Aldrich, Richard. An Introduction to the History of Education(London: Hodder and Stoughton, 1982.
Armytage,W.H.G. Four Hundred Years of England Education. Cambridge: At the University Press,1964.
Barnard, H.C.. A History of English Education: From 1760. London: University of London Press LTD. ,1961.
Bowen, James. A History of Western Education,Vol.3. London: Methuen & Co, LTD,1981.
Boyd, William. The History of Western Education. London: Adam & Charles Black,1968.
Brubacher, John S. A History of the Problems of Education. N.Y.: McGraw-Hill,1966.
Butts, F. Freeman A Cultural History of Education. New York: McGraw-Hill Book Company,Inc.,1947.
Cole, L. A History of Education. New York: Holt, Rinehart and winston.
Compayre, G. The History of Pedagogy, trans by W. H. Payne. London: Swan Sonnenschein CO., LIM.,1900.
Cubberley, E.P. The History of Education. Massachusetts: Houghton Mifflin Co.,1948.
Curtis , S. J. History of Education in Great Britain. Connecticut: Greenwood Press, Publishers,1971.
Dobbs, A. E. Education & Social Movement,1700-1850. New York: Augustus M. Kelley ‧ Publishers,1969.
Eby, F. The Development of Modern Education. N.J.:Prentice-Hall,1960.
Frank Smith, A History of English Elementary Education,1760-1902. London: University of London Press,1931.
Gosden, P.H. J.H. How They Were Taught: An Anthology of Contemporary Accounts of Learning and Teaching in England,1800-1950. Oxford: Basil Blackwell,1969.
Hill, F. National Education; Its Present State and Prospects. London: Charles Knight,1836.
Lawson, J. & Silver, H. A Social History of Education in England. London: Methuen & Co Ltd.,1973.
Martin, C. A Short History of English Schools,1750-1965. England: Wayland Publishers Limited,1979.
McCann, Phillip. Popular Education and Socialization in the Nineteenth Century London: Methuen & CO LTD. ,1977.
Midwinter, Eric. Nineteenth Century Education. London: Longman Group Ltd,1970.
Pollard, Hugh M. Pioneers of Popular Education,1760-1850. Massachusetts: Harvard University Press,1957.
Reisner, E.H. Nationalism and Education Since 1789: A Social and Political History of Modern Education. New York: The Macmillian Company,1922.
Rusk, Robert R. A History of Infant Education . London:University of London Press, Ltd.,1933.
Salmon, D. & Hindshaw,W. Infant School: Their History and Theory .London:Longmans,Green,and CO.,1904.
Sanderson, M.. Education, Economic Change and Society in England,1780-1870. London: The Macmillan Press LTD. ,1983.
Silver, H. Education as History. London: Methuen & Co. Ltd,1983.
Simon, Brain Studies in the History of Education,1780-1870. London: Lawrence & Wishart,1960.
Stewart, W.A.C. Progressives and Radicals in English Education,1750-1970. New Jersey: Augustus M. Kelley Publishers,1972.
Stewart, W.A.C. & McCann, W.P. The Educational Innovators,1750-1880. London:ST Martin’s Press,1967.
Sturt, Mary The Education of the People. London: Routledge and Kegan Paul,1967.
(二)歷史通史或斷代史
Ashton, T.S. The Industrial Revolution, 1760-1830. New York: Oxford University Press,1964.
Briggs, Asa. A Social History of England. London: Penguin Books,1983.
Brown, Richard. Society and Economy in Modern Britain,1700-1850. London: Routledge,1991.
Burns, E. M., Lerner, R. & Meacham, S. Western Civilizations:Their History and Their Culture. New York: W. W. Norton & Company, Inc.,1980.
Clark, John(ed.). Working-Class Culture: Studies in History and Theory. London:Hutchinson & Co. Ltd. 1980.
Cobban , Alfred(ed.). The Debate on the French Revolution. London: Adam & Charles Black,1960.
Cole, G.D.H. & Postgate, R. The Common People,1747-1946. London: Methuen & Co Ltd,1968.
Cook, Chris & Stevenson, John(ed.). The Longman Handbook of Modern British History ,1714-1987. London: Longman Press,1988.
Derry, John W.. A Short History of Nineteenth-century England. New York: New American Library ,1961.
Durant, Will & Ariel. The Story of Civilization 11:The Age of Napoleon. New York: Simon & Schuster. 1975.
Harrison, J.F.C.(ed.), Society and Politics in England, 1780-1960. New York:Harper & Row,Publishers,1965.
Hobsbawm, E. J. The Age of Revolution, 1789-1848. New York: Mentor Books,1964.
Mathias, Peter & Postan, M. M.(ed.). The Cambridge Economic History of Europe, Vol.7. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1978.
Toynbee, Arnold. The Industrial Revolution. Boston: The Beacon Press,1962.
四、論文
Baptiste, Romald E.. Education in the Search for Utopia-- The Educational Theories and Experiments of Robert Owen and Charles Fourier. Massachusetts:Boston University Ed.D. degree Unpublished Dissertation, 1969.(Eric NO.:AAC 7012152)
Cole, G.D.H. "The Educational Ideas of Robert Owen" in The Hibbert Journal, October,1924, pp.127-140.
------, "Robert Owen and Owenism" in Persons & Periods. London: Macmillam and Co., Limited,1938.
Gordon, Peter. "Robert Owen". in Prospects, Vol.24, pp.279-296,1994.
Grant, Maureen C.. Education for the Working Class: The Views of the British Radical Press,1815-1850. New Jersey:Drew University PH.D. degree Unpublished Dissertation, 1981.(Eric NO.:AAC 8119745)
Gutek, G.L. "Education and Reform at Robert Owen''s New Lanark" in E. Rutkowski(ed.), Journal of the Midwest History of Education Society, Vol.17,1989, pp.164-171. (Eric NO.:ED 310968)
Hamilton, D. "Robert Owen and Education:a Re-assessment" in T.S.Popkewitz, Change and Stability in Schooling:The Dual Quality of Education Reform. Victoria:Deakin University Press,1983,pp.30-53.(Eric NO.:ED 283253)
Jeffreys, M.V.C. "Robert Owen" in (ed.)by A.V.Judges, Pioneers of English Education. London: Faber and Faber LTD,1952.
Lightfoot, A.. The Educational Philosophy and Practices of Robert Owen: Educational Iconoclast of the 19th Century. Marquette University Ed.D. degree Unpublished Dissertation, 1968.(Eric NO.:AAC 6903320)
Oliver, W.H. "Robert Owen and English Working Class" in History Today, VIII, November,1958.
Ruggles, David P.. The Contributions of James Mill, and Robert Owen to a State Philosophy of Popular Education in England, 1800-1839. Michigan:Michigan State University PH.D. degree Unpublished Dissertation, 1971.(Eric NO.:AAC 7123236)
Thrift, Ronald E.. Two Paths to Utopia:An Investigation of Robert Owen in New Lanark and Brigham. New Mexico: University of New Mexico PH.D. degree Unpublished Dissertation, 1976.(Eric NO.:AAC 7625684)
Turner, D.A. The Educational Influence of Robert Owen in England with Particular Reference to the Infant Schools Directly Developed from the New Lanark Pattern .London:Mphil. Thesis of University of London, Unpublished,1969.
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