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研究生:于文正
研究生(外文):Wen-cheng Yu
論文名稱:心象練習的心理機制
論文名稱(外文):The Machenism of Mental Imagery
指導教授:林清和林清和引用關係
指導教授(外文):Chin-ho Lin
學位類別:博士
校院名稱:國立臺灣師範大學
系所名稱:體育研究所
學門:教育學門
學類:專業科目教育學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:1999
畢業學年度:87
語文別:中文
論文頁數:373
中文關鍵詞:心象練習現象學研究法
外文關鍵詞:mental imageryphenomenological research method
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中文摘要
本研究主要的目的是希望對心象練習何以能促進運動技能學習與表現,提出一個整合性的理論機制,同時對學習心象練習的心理歷程做一個質的探討,瞭解學習者對這種練習方式的感受,個人想像的方式,學習後對他的影響等方面,希望能找出在這個歷程中能區別技能進步的研究參與者與退步的研究參與者之差異。
由文獻回顧本研究假設「心象練習之所以能在運動技能熟練者的身上產生效果,主要是因為心象練習之後提高了他們的自我效能,而對運動技能的初學者心象練習能產生效果是因為促進了他們對這個技能的認知瞭解」,本研究以三因子混合設計的實驗探討這個假設,以運動經驗(球員組、初學者組)、心象練習內容(接受強調網球切擊球發球動作的心象練習、接受強調提升網球切擊球發球自我效能的心象練習與不接受心象練習)和測量類別(前測、後測)為自變項,以研究參與者的網球切擊球技能表現(發球進球數與發球動作教練評分)、對切擊球發球動作的認知瞭解程度、切擊球發球自我效能為依變項。研究參與者是來自北部地區三所高中的學生,共包括十九位校隊選手,其中有十一位女性、八位男性,三十三位初學者,女性十二位、男性二十一位,完成實驗的研究參與者共有四十四位。
經過變異數分析發現,三個自變數對所有依變數均無三因子的交互作用,在切擊球發球動作教練評分方面:測量類別與運動經驗有二因子交互作用(F=5.41, p<.05),球員組研究參與者前測的平均得分為7.06,後測平均得分為7.14,初學者前測平均得分為2.58,後測平均得分為2.31,另外運動經驗組別也有顯著差異(F=810.057, p<.01),球員組的平均得分較初學者為高。在切擊球發球進球數方面,所有研究參與者的後測進球數顯著低於前測進球數(F=5.405, p<.05),而運動經驗組別之間也有顯著差異(F=124.411, p<.01),球員組的進球數顯著高於初學者組。在切擊球發球動作的瞭解程度方面則並未發現任何顯著差異。而對切擊球發球自我效能則發現運動經驗組別之間有顯著差異(F=25.982, p<.01),球員組顯著高於初學者組,另外測量類別間也有顯著差異(F=6.028, p<.05),研究參與者的後測得分顯著低於前測。
在實驗的部份完成之後,本研究訪談所有曾參與心象練習的研究參與者,並以切擊球發球動作教練評分的高低,選出後測時進步最高的五位研究參與者,與後測時退步最多的五名研究參與者進行現象學分析,結果發現,在這十名研究參與者學習心象練習的心理歷程中,研究參與者學習基礎心象練習時的態度,以及他們在第二階段心象練習中所自行添加的內容能將技能進步組與技能退步組的研究參與者區分開。在學習基礎心象練習時,與技能進步組的研究參與者相比,技能退步組的研究參與者比較懷疑這種練習的效用,而做完基礎心象練習之後,所有進步組的研究參與者均好奇、期待下一階段心象練習的開始,但是退步組的研究參與者卻沒有這種躍躍欲試的反應。在第二階段心象練習中,部份研究參與者會自行添加想像的內容,但是進步組研究參與者所添加的內容並不會對心象練習產生負面的效應,他們雖然加上了另外一個心象練習組的練習內容,卻沒有反面的想像題材,但是技能退步組研究參與者所自行添加的內容中,有的是出現了負面題材,想像自己做壞了先前所學習的發球動作,或認為自己根本作不到想像中的程度,有的則是添加沒有必要的跳躍發球動作,但是這個動作卻對實際發球產生負面干擾。
本研究雖然並未能確認心象練習對不同運動經驗研究參與者的心理機制,仍發現某些可能影響實驗效果的干擾因素,除了從現象學分析所獲得的心象練習心理歷程差異之外,研究參與者心象練習過程中所想像出來的影像的清晰度也可能與技能進步或退步有關,最後本研究並對研究參與者的主體性,以及這種主體性對整個研究的影響做進一步的討論與建議。
The mechanism of mental imagery
Wen-cheng Yu
ABSTRACT
The purpose of this research was to explore the underlying mechanism of mental imagery. It was hypothesized the benefit of imagery was mediated by self-efficacy and cognitive schema for different levels of sport experience. In study one, high school students (N=44) were randomly assigned to experimental treatments for three weeks of imagery training (slice serve movement, confidence-boosting of slice serve) or a no imagery (control) condition according to their tennis experience (player or novice). Pretest and posttest were executed.
There was not any three-factors'' interaction between sport experience, content of imagery, and measurement. In coaches'' evaluation of slice serve movement, sport experience interacted with measurement (F=5.41, p < .05). The pretest average score of tennis players was 7.06, posttest was 7.14. Novices'' pretest average score was 2.58, posttest average score was 2.31.Tennis players'' scores in coaches'' evaluation of slice serve movement, numbers of successful slice serve, and self-efficacy in slice serve were superior than novices''. There was not any significant difference in subjects'' cognitive understanding about slice serve. Subject'' posttest performance in self-efficacy of slice serve and numbers of successful slice serve was superior than pretest. The imagery training did not make any difference.
In study two, 29 subjects were structural interviewed. Ten of them were chosen to do further phenomenological analysis. 5 subjects were clarified as progress group and 5 were regress group. The purpose of study two was to compare the psychological process of different groups in imagery training. The result showed attitude about basic imagery training and the content subjects added in task-specific imagery could distinguish different groups. While practicing basic imagery, regress group showed more suspicion. And after this basic imagery training, all 5 subjects of progress group felt curiosity about task-specific imagery. But the regress group did not express that reaction. In task-specific imagery, some subjects might add their own imagery content. The additional content added by progress group did not conflict with the experimental design, however, the regress group did. One of them imaged negative movement result and told herself that she will never make it. The other one changed the imaged serve movement, and that would obstacle his performance.
Although these results did not confirm the hypothesis, it still found some interesting interference variables. Besides the psychological process differences occurred in imagery, the vividness and controllability of image also might relate to subjects'' performance. The influence of subjectivity was discussed and some recommendations were made for the future research.
封面
目錄
第壹章 緒論
第一節 研究動機與研究重要性
第二節 研究目的
第三節 研究問題與假設
第四節 現象的釐清與名詞解釋
第貳章 文獻探討
第一節 心象練習的理論
第二節 觀點的整合
第三節 研究操作上的注意事項
第四節 現象學研究法的哲學基礎
第參章 研究方法
第一節 研究參與者
第二節 研究期間
第三節 網球切擊球發球教學課程內容
第四節 心象練習內容
第五節 實驗器材
第六節 實驗場地
第七節 實驗設計
第八節 實驗程序
第九節 教練評分方式
第十節 研究工具
第十一節 實驗資料處理
第十二節 結構式訪談
第十三節 研究限制
第肆章 研究結果
第一節 心象練習過程的監測
第二節 運動經驗、心象練習內容、測量類別對網球切擊球發球技能之影響
第三節 結構式訪談的現象學分析
第伍章 討論與建議
第一節 自變項之間沒有交互作用
第二節 干擾心象練習效果的因素
第三節 對未來研究的建議
參考文獻
附錄
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