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研究生:高慧貞
研究生(外文):Huey-Jen,Cau
論文名稱:臺灣東北海域兩種長鬚蝦之生物學研究
論文名稱(外文):THE BIOLOGY OF TWO COMMERCIAL ARISTAEOIDPRAWNS(CRUSTACEA : DECAPODA : ARISTEIDAE) OFF NORTHEASTERN TAIWAN
指導教授:陳天任陳天任引用關係
指導教授(外文):T.Y. Chan
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立海洋大學
系所名稱:海洋生物研究所
學門:自然科學學門
學類:海洋科學學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:1999
畢業學年度:87
語文別:中文
論文頁數:90
中文關鍵詞:葉狀擬鬚蝦和雄壯鬚蝦外部形態形質生殖生物學
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本研究自1997年7月至1998年9月間,對二種產於臺灣東北部深海域之葉狀擬鬚蝦和雄壯鬚蝦,連續15個月進行調查外部形態、形質及生殖生物學之研究。結果顯示臺灣葉狀擬鬚蝦和雄壯鬚蝦主要分佈於水深250-600公尺之沙泥底海域,葉狀擬鬚蝦雌蝦最大體長為184.1 mm,雄蝦則為157.3mm;雄壯鬚蝦雌蝦最大體長為191.5 mm,雄蝦則為132.0mm。雄蝦和雌蝦之體型結構及分佈水深隨季節而變化。雌、雄個體之外部形質測定,經統計分析結果顯示頭胸甲長與體長、額角長、雄性交接器長度間均呈直線迴歸關係;而與體重、腹重均呈曲線迴歸關係。其中只有額角長呈顯著性的差異,可作為性雙型與多型性之有效依據,而雄性交接器癒合情形則可以做為雄蝦性成熟之有效依據。臺灣葉狀擬鬚蝦全體的雌雄比為1.1:1.0;雄壯鬚蝦的雌雄比為 2.6:1.0,每月雌蝦比例皆大於50%,但在生殖高峰期時兩種之雄蝦數相對增加。雌雄比與頭胸甲長比呈顯著變化,雌蝦之頭胸甲長組成的月別頻度分佈高峰偏右呈顯著變化,雄蝦之頭胸甲長組成的月別頻度分佈高峰略偏左。兩種雄蝦的頭胸甲長頻度分布範圍明顯地較雌蝦更為狹窄,顯示雄蝦體型有較雌蝦小的現象。
根據卵巢外部型態、顏色、細胞組織,以及生殖腺成熟指數之變化,此兩種長鬚蝦之卵巢發育大致可分成4個階段,成熟的卵巢可經由頭胸甲背部觀察判斷之,完全成熟的葉狀擬鬚蝦卵巢顏色為黑灰色,雄壯鬚蝦則為深紫色。精莢附著似乎與雌蝦卵巢之發育有高度相關性。從光學顯微鏡下觀察不同時期之卵巢細胞變化,發現完全成熟之葉狀擬鬚蝦之最大卵細胞(直徑0.42-0.44mm)數佔一半以上,成熟卵細胞群互相擠壓並排成緡錢狀,此為蝦類中僅見;完全成熟雄壯鬚蝦之最大卵細胞(直徑0.40-0.43 mm)數佔一半以上,卵細胞內環繞一圈桿狀周邊體。
葉狀擬鬚蝦生殖季節為5月到11月,生殖高峰為5月到9月;雄壯鬚蝦生殖季節為3月到12月,生殖高峰為5月到9月。推估葉狀擬鬚蝦之雌蝦其最小性成熟體型為cl.46.7 mm,雄蝦最小性成熟體型為cl.35.0 mm;雄壯鬚蝦之雌蝦其最小性成熟體型為38.4 mm,雄蝦最小性成熟體型為cl.24.8 mm。葉狀擬鬚蝦成熟雌蝦之生殖腺成熟指數(GSI)平均值為10.1±1.0,雄壯鬚蝦之成熟雌蝦則為10.0 ±0.8。
兩種長鬚蝦均以雌蝦之肥滿度較高,但利用度則以雄蝦較高。兩種長鬚蝦均為雜食性,攝食對象偏向肉食性,為食物網中較高消費層次。兩種長鬚蝦之新生族群均自春、夏季分兩次加入。鰓腔有等足目寄生,葉狀擬鬚蝦為0.58%;雄壯鬚蝦為0.53%寄生率偏低。目前本研究無法推估此兩種蝦之壽命,但根據國外報告指出,長鬚蝦科壽命為2-7年。
摘要……………………………………………………………………………1
一. 前言………………………………………………………………………2二. 材料與方法………………………………………………………………3標本收集 …………………………………………………………………3
標本處理…………………………………………………………………3
形態形質測定項目………………………………………………………3
食性與胃飽度……………………………………………………………4
肥滿度……………………………………………………………………4
肝胰臟指數………………………………………………………………4
利用度……………………………………………………………………4
軟殼率……………………………………………………………………4
寄生蟲寄生率……………………………………………………………4
性比………………………………………………………………………5
生殖腺成熟度……………………………………………………………5
最小性成熟體型…………………………………………………………6
雌性成熟率………………………………………………………………6
精莢附著率………………………………………………………………6
生殖季節 …………………………………………………………………6
族群成長……………………………………………………………………7
數據分析 ………………………………………………………………7
三. 結 果…………………………………………………………………7
外部形態形質之關係…………………………………………………8
體長(bl)與頭胸甲長(cl)之相對成長關係…………………9
額角長(rl)與頭胸甲長(cl)之關係…………………………10
雄性交接器長(pt)與頭胸甲長(cl)之關係…………………11
體重(bw)與頭胸甲長(cl)之關係……………………………11
腹重(tw)與頭胸甲長(cl)之關係……………………………11
性比變動………………………………………………………………12
性雙型與多型性………………………………………………………13
生殖生物學…………………………………………………….……13
生殖細胞組織學…………………………………………………13
生殖腺生殖腺成熟指數…………………………………………………………16
最小性成熟體型…………………………………………………………17
精莢附著率………………………………………………………………18
生殖季節…………………………………………………………………18
體型組成……………………………………………………………………18
頭胸甲長月別頻度分佈……………………………………………………19
食性與胃飽度…………………………………………………………20
肝胰臟指數……………………………………………………………20
肥滿度…………………………………………………………………21
利用度…………………………………………………………………21
軟殼率…………………………………………………………………21
Bopyridae之寄生…………………………………………………… 22
四. 討論…………………………………………………………………23
外部形態形質之關係…………………………………………………23
性雙型與多型性………………………………………………………24
性比變動…………………………………………………………… 25
生殖發育過程……………………………………………………… 26
生殖細胞組織學………………………………………………… 26
卵巢外觀特徵………………………………………………… 28
生殖腺成熟指數………………………………………………….28
最小性成熟體型………………………………………………….29
精莢附著率……………………………………………………….30
生殖季節……………………………………………………………….31
族群分佈垂直深度…………………………………………………31
族群月別分佈、成長、年齡壽命估計…………………………..32
攝食…………………………………………………………………33
肝胰臟指數與生殖腺成熟指數之關係……………………………34
肥滿度與利用度………………………………………………………34
軟殼率 …………………………………………………………… 34
Bopyridae之寄生…………………………………………………….35
雌雄嵌體……………………………………………………………35
漁業資源保育上建議………………………………………………36
參考文獻………………………………………………………… 38-43
圖版…………………………………………………………Figs. 1-56
表…………………………………………………………… Tabs. 1-2
附錄…………………………………………………… AppendixⅠ-Ⅵ
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