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研究生:何宏文
論文名稱:南海表層沈積物浮游有孔蟲及表層海洋環境之分析
論文名稱(外文):Analysis on the Distribution Patterns of the Recent Surface Sediment Planktonic Foraminifers and Upper-layer Ocean Environments in the South China Sea
指導教授:陳明德陳明德引用關係李隆安李隆安引用關係
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立海洋大學
系所名稱:應用地球物理研究所
學門:自然科學學門
學類:地球科學學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:1998
畢業學年度:87
語文別:中文
論文頁數:113
中文關鍵詞:沈積物浮游有孔蟲
相關次數:
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  許多前人的研究顯示,海水表面溫度(SST)參數是控制現生浮游有孔蟲分佈最重要的
因素,然而,以浮游有孔蟲古生態轉換函數對低緯度海洋環境的估測顯示有較高的不確定
性。針對此不確定性的現象,本研究蒐集210個南海表層沈積物樣本及20個和浮游有孔蟲
生態較有關的水文參數進行統計分析,期望藉由南海南北溫度梯度差異不大的特質,來了
解現生浮游有孔蟲分佈和表層水文環境間的關係。
  本研究運用圖形分佈法及三種統計分析技術,來確立現生浮游性有孔蟲和南海表層海
洋環境的關係。圖形分佈法是以浮游有孔蟲和水文環境的分佈來判斷兩者間的關係;水文
因子分析(PCA)用以找出彼此呈現性獨立且個數最少的水文因子,藉由分類水文的特性來
探求浮游有孔蟲的分佈;典型性相關分析(CANOCO)用以求取浮游有孔蟲動物群組及水文參
數線性組合間的相關性,使兩者間達最大的相關性;對數比例多元迴歸分析(log ratio
multiple regression)用以建立個別種屬和一組水文參數間的關係,探討個別浮游有孔蟲
種屬和表層海洋環境間的關係。
  現生浮游性有孔蟲相對豐度的分佈可反應南海和西太平洋海域水文特質的差異,由三
個抗溶種相對豐度顯示南海G. menardii相對豐度的分佈遠較西太平洋為高,相反的,西
太平洋中N. dutertrei和P. obliquiloculata的相對豐度遠較南海為高,造成兩區域水團
間主要的差異可能是區域性水文構造的不同,例如溫躍層、密度躍層等相關的水文參數。
  G. ruber和G. sacculifer兩個種屬主要是分佈在南海的南部,反應冬季為高溫、低
鹽、低密度、淺躍層及混合程度弱的水文條件;夏季為低鹽、低密度、深躍層及混合程度
強的水文環境,而營養鹽的分佈是反應相對較貧營養鹽(oligotrophic)的環境。而G.
glutinata和N. dutertrei兩個種主要是分佈在南海的北部,反應冬季為低溫、高鹽、高
密度、混合程度強的水文條件;夏季為高鹽、高密度、低混合程度弱的水文條件;營養鹽
的分佈是反應相對較富營養鹽(eutrophic)的環境。南海浮游性有孔蟲會有南北不同的分
佈形式,可能和河川所注入的營養鹽關係較為密切。
  除了溫度及混合層兩個水文參數對浮游有孔蟲相對豐度的分佈影響最大外。對湧昇流
種而言,其他重要的水文參數還有密度、鹽度及硝酸鹽濃度的影響;對淺水種而言,還有
鹽度躍層的影響;對深水種而言,還有溫躍層、鹽躍層、磷酸鹽躍層等。綜合以上的結果
可知,影響浮游有孔蟲的因素除了溫度因素外,還須同時考慮幾個不同水文參數的組合,
單一的水文因子不足以完全解釋現生浮游有孔蟲相對豐度的分佈。


Sea-surface temperature (SST) is an important control factor to the distribution patterns of planktonic foraminifers. In previous research, transfer functions were developed for estimating SST based on planktonic foraminifers have large biases and uncertainties for the low-latitude ocean. In order to understand the complex relationships between the planktonic foraminifers and surface ocean environments in the low-latitude ocean, this study was designed to collext data of 210 coretops data and 20 hydrographic parameters from the South China Sea(SCS), an important tropical marginal sea of the western Pacific. The objectives of this research are to understand: (1)how many kinds of hydrographic parameters are important to planktonic foraminifers except for SST; (2)what characteristic assemblages of planktonic foraminifers can be used to indicate different hydrographic properies between the SCS and the Western Pacific Ocean (WPAC); (3)what planktonic foraminifer assemblages can be used to indicate different hydrographic properies in the north/south SCS.
We adapted three statistical techniques to examine the relationships between the planktonic foraminifers and surface ocean environments of the SCS. Results shows that the distribution pattern of planktonic foraminifers is associated with various surface ocean environments. In the SCS, the abundances of G. menardii are relatively higher than those in the WPAC. In constant, In the WPAC, P.obliquiloculata and N.dutertrei are more abundant than in the SCS. The different faunal abundance pattern may be related to the different regional hydrographic structure of the SCS and WPAC (depth of thermocline, pycnocline, and others).
G. ruber and G. sacculifer are two dominant species in the southern SCS. These two species are associated with warm SST, low sea-surface salinity(SSAL), low sea-surface density(SSD), shallow depth of thermocline(DOT), and less mixed in the upper-layer environments during the winter; low SSAL, low SSD, ddp DOT, and more mixed in the upper-layer environments in the summer; and relatively low nutrient contents in comparing with those in the north SCS. G. glutinata and N.dutertrei are major species in the northern SCS. These two species are associated with low SST, high SSAL, high SSD, deep DOT, and more mixed in the upper-layer environments during the winter; high SSAL, high SSD, and less mixed in the upper-layer environments during the summer; and relatively high nutrient contents in the southern SCS. The north/south fauna distribution patterns may be also related to the riverine input of organic matter into the SCS.
The SST and mixed-layer depth(MLD) seem to be the two most important controlling factors to the planktonic foraminifer distributions, For upwelling species, the other important factors are SSD, SSAL and nutrients. For shallowdwelling species, depth of halocline(DOH) are also affects the faunal distributions; For deep-dwelling species, DOT, DOH and depth of nutricline(phosphate)(DOPH) are additional factors to the fauna distribution. This research concludes that the use of only single hydrographic parameter can not fully explain the distribution of the planktonic foraminifers in the SCS. We must consider the contribution from the other hydrographic controls.

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