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研究生:林政偉
論文名稱:感潮河段之計算研究
指導教授:黃 良 雄
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立臺灣大學
系所名稱:土木工程學研究所
學門:工程學門
學類:土木工程學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:1999
畢業學年度:87
語文別:中文
論文頁數:129
中文關鍵詞:感潮河段擬似三維水動力計算模式改良之港灣水理模式潮汐潮流延散係數
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本研究之主要目的在以數值模式進行感潮河川之水理計算。感潮河段(tidal estuary)同時承受海洋及河川動力因素的交互作用及消長,形成特殊的河口水理及質量傳輸現象,過去的研究都是將海洋與河川分開處理,對於連接兩者之河口感潮段則較少有深入探討,基於這些考量,本研究計算範圍包含河川及河口附近的海域,同時考慮海洋潮汐、波浪及河川流量對感潮河川的影響,期望能獲得更完整的感潮資訊。
河口的水理現象實為三維空間上的問題,必須以高維度的模式模擬方能較精確地反應出真實的水理及質量傳輸行為,所以本研究擴充擬似三維水動力計算模式(quasi-three dimensional model)邊界的處理能力,以兼顧河川、潮汐及波浪的完整方式,達成在不同河川流量及外海波浪條件下之水理計算並決定感潮終點之位置,期以相當於二維計算容量及時間的模式,來獲得感潮河川擬似三維空間分佈之相關訊息。由於缺乏計算邊界所需的水位及流速觀測值,因此以改良之港灣水理模式(modified Harbor Hydrodynamic Model)(m.HHM)以大網格計算河口附近的水深平均流速及水位,提供擬似三維模式進行感潮河川模擬時所需之外海邊界條件,而擬似三維模式是以小網格進行模擬。
本文亦選擇花蓮市美崙溪之感潮河口作為研究之應用對象。推算不同河川流量及外海波浪條件下,以外海水位、河川流量及感潮終點三者為關係的感潮終點立體圖,對美崙溪河口之感潮現象有進一步之瞭解。最後以計算出的速度剖面,推求二維質量傳輸係數,以提供水質模擬時傳輸係數決定之參考。
目錄
謝誌I
中文摘要II
ABSTRACTIV
目錄VI
表目錄IX
圖目錄X
第一章 緒論1
1-1 前言1
1-2 文獻回顧2
1-3 研究目的4
1-4 章節介紹5
第二章 感潮河川之特性6
2-1 潮汐及河口水流6
2-1.1 潮汐與潮流6
2-1.2 河口水流8
2-2 河口鹽分混合及河口延散9
2-2.1 河口混合9
2-2.2 河口延散11
第三章 河口水力理論分析13
3-1 水平二維深度平均方程式13
3-2 垂直一維模式控制方程式16
3-3 邊界條件17
第四章 數值模式19
4-1 改良之港灣水理模式19
4-1.1 模式概述19
4-1.2 數值方法19
4-1.3 穩定條件22
4-1.4 邊界條件和起使條件24
4-1.5 沿岸流模擬的處理24
4-1.6 水平二維大小網格之銜接26
4-2 擬似三維水動力計算模式26
4-2.1 模式概述26
4-2.2 數值方法27
4-2.3 穩定條件28
4-2.4 邊界條件和起使條件30
4-2.5 移動邊界之模擬31
第五章 模式驗證與應用33
5-1 南北對稱地形之模擬33
5-1.1 模擬地形概述33
5-1.2 邊界條件之處理33
5-1.3 模擬結果34
5-1.3.1 水平二維結果34
5-1.3.2 潮位變化34
5-1.3.3 流速剖面34
5-2 美崙溪感潮河川之模擬35
5-2.1 模擬區域概述35
5-2.2 模擬範圍的決定35
5-2.3 邊界條件之處理35
5-2.4 導流堤的設置36
5-2.5 模擬結果37
5-2.5.1 水平二維結果37
5-2.5.2 潮位變化38
5-2.5.3 感潮終點39
5-2.6 結果之驗證40
5-3 延散係數之推求40
5-3.1 泰勒理論40
5-3.2 二維延散係數42
5-3.3 美崙溪之延散係數45
第六章 結論與建議47
6-1 結論47
6-2 建議48
參考文獻49
附表53
附圖54
附錄A RCPWAVE 波場模式119
附錄B 水躍對導流堤明渠的簡單影響分析125
符號說明128
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