(3.239.33.139) 您好!臺灣時間:2021/03/08 18:29
字體大小: 字級放大   字級縮小   預設字形  
回查詢結果

詳目顯示:::

我願授權國圖
: 
twitterline
研究生:王彩鳳
研究生(外文):Wang, Tsai-Feng
論文名稱:大學生自殺意念的多層面預測模式
指導教授:張素凰張素凰引用關係
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立臺灣大學
系所名稱:心理學研究所
學門:社會及行為科學學門
學類:心理學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:1999
畢業學年度:87
語文別:中文
論文頁數:150
中文關鍵詞:自殺意念自我效能衝動性死亡焦慮生死態度憂鬱歸因組型
相關次數:
  • 被引用被引用:47
  • 點閱點閱:1080
  • 評分評分:系統版面圖檔系統版面圖檔系統版面圖檔系統版面圖檔系統版面圖檔
  • 下載下載:0
  • 收藏至我的研究室書目清單書目收藏:10
本研究的主要目的是由多層面來探討自殺意念的相關因素。在控制環境困擾事件(期中考與期末考前兩週)之下,綜合過去文獻研究,由多層面歸納出與自殺意念有關的因素,包括情緒狀態層面(憂鬱、死亡焦慮)、認知特性層面(歸因組型、自我效能)、性格特質層面(衝動性)、整體態度層面(生死態度)等,並同時進行實徵測量,意圖彌補過去研究所採取的單面向實徵研究取向之不足,同時就這些變項依理論推衍形成一個自殺意念生成歷程的整體模式,並嘗試提出可能的結構方程模式(SEM)加以驗證,俾能應用至臨床實務上對自殺意念的預測與衡鑑。
  本研究採自評式問卷調查法,以巴氏衝動性量表、雪氏自我效能量表、多元態度自殺傾向量表、譚氏死亡焦慮量表、貝氏憂鬱量表、貝氏自殺意念量表、歸因組型量表為研究工具,實施大樣本研究,間隔五週進行兩次施測。除進行描述性統計分析,並求再測信度外,尚針對各變項兩兩進行相關分析與淨相關分析,以明瞭彼此間的關係是否顯著相關,以及釐清各變項間可能的因果關係方向;在多變項分析部份,除採用逐步複迴歸分析外,並提出可能的結構方程模式,進行適配度檢驗,加以驗證。
  本研究的主要貢獻,首先在於增加情緒狀態層面(死亡焦慮)、整體態度層面(生死態度、自我效能)與性格特質層面(衝動性),在自殺意念產生歷程上扮演角色的關注;其次是嘗試整合為一個整體模式架構,有利整體評估。
  研究結果發現,生死態度與自我效能均為自殺意念的良好預測指標,其中,生死態度概念中的四個向度,的確各自對自殺意念產生不同影響力;逐步複迴歸分析結果顯示,六個預測指標可解釋42.04%的變異量,其中對生之斥力所解釋的變異量最多;由淨相關分析與多變量複迴歸分析結果顯示,自我效能透過憂鬱此中介變項,對自殺意念產生間接預測效果;此外,衝動性、死亡焦慮與自殺意念的關係不顯著,尚待後續研究改進並驗證之,方能建立較理想的整體預測模式。
目  錄
第一章 緒論 ------------------------------------------------------------------ 1
 第一節 前言 --------------------------------------------------------------- 1
 第二節 由多層面預測自殺風險 --------------------------------------- 5
 第三節 情緒狀態層面─憂鬱與歸因組型、自殺的關係 ---------- 16
 第四節 認知特性層面─自我效能與憂鬱、歸因組型以及自殺
的關係 ------------------------------------------------------------ 21
 第五節 性格特質層面─衝動性與自殺的關係 --------------------- 27
 第六節 整體態度層面─生死態度與死亡焦慮、自殺的關係 --- 32
 第七節 研究架構與假設 ------------------------------------------------ 44
第二章 研究材料與方法 -------------------------------------------------- 49
 第一節 研究一 ------------------------------------------------------------ 49
     一 受試者與研究程序 ---------------------------------------- 49
     二 研究工具 ---------------------------------------------------- 50
 第二節 研究二 ------------------------------------------------------------ 56
     一 受試者與研究程序 ---------------------------------------- 56
     二 研究工具 ----------------------------------------------------- 56
 第三節 資料處理與統計分析 ------------------------------------------ 58
第三章 研究結果 ------------------------------------------------------------ 59
 第一節 研究一 ------------------------------------------------------------ 62
     一 基本資料統計分析 ---------------------------------------- 62
     二 信度與項目分析 ------------------------------------------- 63
     三 相關分析 ----------------------------------------------------- 64
     四 結構方程模式初步分析 ---------------------------------- 66
     五 淨相關分析 ------------------------------------------------- 72
 第二節 研究二 ------------------------------------------------------------ 88
     一 基本資料統計分析 ---------------------------------------- 88
     二 相關分析 ----------------------------------------------------- 89
     三 複迴歸分析 -------------------------------------------------- 91
     四 因素分析 ----------------------------------------------------- 99
第四章 討論 ------------------------------------------------------------------- 104
 第一節 綜合結論 ---------------------------------------------------------- 104
     一 情緒狀態變項與自殺意念及其他變項間的關係 ----- 104
     二 認知特性變項與自殺意念及其他變項間的關係 ----- 109
     三 性格特質變項的組成成分及其與自殺意念的關係 -- 111
     四 整體態度變項的組成成分及其與自殺意念的關係 -- 112
     五 多層面自殺意念預測模式的檢驗及可能的修正模
式 -------------------------------------------------------------- 113
 第二節 研究限制與未來方向 ------------------------------------------- 115
 第三節 研究貢獻 ---------------------------------------------------------- 116
參考文獻 ------------------------------------------------------------------------- 125
附錄一、巴氏衝動性量表各題題意簡述(「衝動性」變項) --------- 147
附錄二、多元自殺傾向量表各題題意簡述(「生死態度」變項) --- 149
表 目 次
表1、研究一、研究二所採用的統計分析之目的說明表 --------------- 58
表2、研究一各量表題數、分數範圍、受試者回答範圍簡表 ------------ 61
表3、研究一之描述性統計結果 --------------------------------------------- 62
表4、研究一之相關分析(皮爾森相關係數)摘要表 --------------------- 65
表5、內因性變項間徑路係數摘要表 --------------------------------------- 70
表6、外因性變項對內因性變項之徑路係數摘要表 --------------------- 70
表7、內因性變項之殘差變異量摘要表 ------------------------------------ 70
表8、模式適配度的評鑑項目及理想的評鑑結果 ------------------------ 72
表9、研究二之描述性統計結果 --------------------------------------------- 89
表10、研究二中納入複迴歸分析之十五個變項相關分析表 ---------- 92
表11、以「對生之吸力」、「對生之斥力」、「對死之吸力」與
「對死之斥力」等四個預測變項為獨變項,以死亡焦慮為
依變項的逐步複迴歸分析 ------------------------------------------ 94
表12、以十四個預測變項為獨變項,以自殺意念為依變項的逐步
複迴歸分析 ----------------------------------------------------------- 96
表13、以憂鬱、自殺意念為依變項,進行十三個獨變項的逐步複
迴歸分析 -------------------------------------------------------------- 98
表14、Barratt 衝動性量表(BIS)各題在各因素上的負荷量 --------- 101
表15、多元自殺傾向量表(MAST)各題在各因素上的負荷量 --------- 103
圖 目 次
圖一、本研究假設之自殺意念預測模式 ---------------------------------- 47
圖二、未考慮生死態度四向度與自殺意念關係的自殺意念預測模
式 ----------------------------------------------------------------------- 86
圖三、已考慮生死態度四向度與自殺意念關係的自殺意念預測模
式 ----------------------------------------------------------------------- 87
參考文獻
王如。(民86年)。「大學生自殺意念相關因素之研究:自殺意念預測模式初探」。國立台灣大學心理研究所碩士論文。
王彩鳳、張素凰(民87年)。「衝動性特質、自我效能預期、死亡焦慮、憂鬱程度與自殺意念關係之先行研究」。民國八十七年九月於中國心理學年會發表之論文。台北市。
行政院衛生署。(民79年)。「衛生統計:公務統計」。
行政院衛生署。(民86年)。「衛生統計:公務統計」。
行政院衛生署。(民87年)。「衛生統計:公務統計」。
安宗昇、韋喬治譯。(民76年)。「情緒心理學」。台北市:五洲出版社。
李沛良。(民77年)。「社會研究的統計分析」。台北市:巨流出版社。
李美枝編著。(民80年)。「社會心理學」。台北市:大洋出版社,第七版。
吳英璋、金樹人、許文耀。(民80年)。「面對壓力身心健康手冊」。教育部訓委會編印。
吳英璋、金樹人、許文耀。(民81年)。「校園自我傷害防治處理手冊」。教育部訓委會編印。
金佩玲。(民80年)。「血液透析病患的歸因組型與憂鬱-憂鬱性歸因理論的驗證」。國立台灣大學心理學研究所碩士論文。
柯永河編。(民82年)。「神經心理學」。台北市:大洋出版社。
胡淑媛。(民81年)。「青少年自殺傾向相關因素之研究」。私立中國文化大學兒童福利研究所碩士論文。
柯慧貞。(民78年)。「內因性與非內因性憂鬱症之心理病理差異比較」。國立台灣大學心理學研究所博士論文。
徐瑋伶、蕭美貞、余建德、陳婉真、張素凰。(民85年)。「大學生自殺意念與生活事件、歸因組型、無望性憂鬱之研究」。國科會補助之專題研究計畫,計畫編號,NSC 85-2815-C002-01-043H。
許文耀。(民87年)。「自殺行為徵兆評估量表的編製」。學生輔導56期,124-141頁。
張春興。(民78年)。「張氏心理學辭典」。台北市:東華書局。
張建邦。(民86年)。「多變量分析」。台北市:三民書局。
張素凰。(民81年)。「憂鬱性歸因理論前瞻性研究方式的驗證-以大學生為樣本的探討」。國科會研究計劃,計劃編號,NSC 81-0301-H-002-522。
曾光佩。(民82年)。「大學生的憂鬱情緒與歸因-憂鬱性歸因理論的驗證」。國立台灣大學心理學研究所碩士論文。
彭秀玲、柯永河。(民76年)。「大學生的生活壓力和自我強度對心理健康的影響」。中華心理學刊,第三卷,第二期,99-115頁。
陳正昌、程炳林。(民87年)。SPSS、SAS、BMDP統計軟體在多變量統計上的應用。台北市:五南圖書出版公司,第二版。
陳婷婷。(民84年)。「醫學院學生自殺意念與生活壓力、問題解決能力、社會支持及無望感關係之研究」。私立高雄醫學院行為科學研究所碩士論文。
黃裕達。(民81年)。「憂鬱症的歸因向度與歸因複雜度探討」。私立中原大學心理學研究所碩士論文。
黃宇達。(民86年)。「死亡焦慮:性別、年齡與死亡焦慮歸因之角色的探討」。私立中原大學心理學研究所碩士論文。
黃慧貞。(民72年)。「生活壓力,歸因組型,社會支援與大學生之憂鬱症」。中華心理學刊,第25卷,第一期,31-37頁。
劉安真。(民81年)。「大學生的自殺問題」。諮商與輔導74期,30-31頁。
鄭雅芬。(民85年)。「無望型憂鬱理論下『特定易感受性假設』之驗證」。國立台灣大學心理學研究所碩士論文。
盧美凡。(民84年)。「大學生之憂鬱性歸因與知覺─憂鬱性歸因理論的驗證」。國立台灣大學心理學研究所碩士論文。
Abramson, L. Y., Alloy, L. B., & Metalsky, G. I. (1990). Hopelessness depression: An empirical search for a theory-based subtype. In R. E. Ingram (Ed.), Contemporary psychological approaches to depression, Treatment, research, and theory. New York: Plenum Press.
Abramson, L. Y., Metalsky, G. I., & Alloy, L. B. (1989). Hopelessness depression: A theory-based subtype of depression. Psychological Review, 96(2), 358-372.
Abramson, L. Y., Seligman, M. E. P., & Teasdale, J. D. (1978). Learned helplessness in humans: Critique and reformulation. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 87(1), 49-74.
Alloy, L. B., Abramson, L. Y., Metalsky, G. I. (1988).The hopelessness theory of depression: Attributional aspects. British Journal of Clinical Psychology, 27, 5-21.
Alloy, L. B., & Ahrens, A. H. (1987). Depression and pessimism for the future: Biased use of statistically relevant information in predictions for self versus others. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 52(2), 366-378.
Alloy, L. B., Clements, C. & Kolden, G. (1982). The cognitive diathesis-stress theories of depression: Therapeutic implications. Theoretical issues in behavior therapy. Academic Press.
Alloy, L. B., Just, N., & Panzarella, C. (1997). Attributional style, daily life events, and hopelessness depression: subtype validation by prospective variability and specificity of symptoms. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 21(3), 321-344.
American Psychiatric Association. (APA, 1994). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders ; DSM -IV. Washington: APA Press.
Asberg, M., Traskman, L., & Thoren, P. (1976). 5-HIAA in the cerebrospinal fluid: A biochemical suicide predictor? Archives of General Psychiatry, 33, 1193-1197.
Balon, R. (1987). Suicide: Can we predict it? Comprehensive Psychiatry, 28(3), 236-241.
Bandura, A. (1977). Self-efficacy: Toward a unifying theory of behavioral change. Psychological Review, 84(2), 191-215.
Bandura, A. (1982). Self-efficacy mechanism in human agency. American Psychologist, 37(2), 122-147.
Bandura, A. (1986). Social Foundation of thought and action. New York: Prentice-Hall Press.
Bandura, A., Adams, N. E., & Beyer, J. (1977). Cognitive processes mediating behavioral change. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 35(3) 125-139.
Beck, A. T., (1967). Depression: Clinical, Exprimental, and Theoretical Aspects. New York: Harper & Row Press.
Beck, A. T., (1976a). Cognitive therapy and the emotional disorders. New York: International University Press.
Beck, A. T., (1976b). Hopelessness as a predictor of evental suicide. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 487, 90-96.
Beck, A. T., Kovacs, M., & Weissman, A. (1975). Hopelessness and suicidal behavior: An Interview. J Am. Med. Assoc, 234, 1146-1149.
Beck, A. T., Kovacs, M., & Weissman, A. (1979). Assessment of suicidal intention: The scale for suicidal ideation. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 47(2), 343-352.
Beck, A. T., & Rush, A. J. (1978). Cognitive approaches to depression and suicide. In G. Serban(Ed.), Cognitive Deficits in the Development of MentalIillness (pp.235-257). New York: Brunner.
Beck, A. T., & Rush, A. J. Shaw, B. F., & Emery, G. (1979). Cognitive therapy of depression. New York: Guilford.
Beck, A. T., Steer, R. A. & Ranieri, W. F. (1988). Scale for suicide ideation: Psychometric properties of a self-report version. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 44(4), 499-505.
Beck, A. T., Ward, C. H., Mendelson, M., Mock, J., & Erbaugh, J. (1961). An inventory of measuring depression. Archives of General Psychiatry, 4, 561-571.
Bernard, J. L., & Bernard, M. L. (1982). Factors related to suicide behavior among college students and the impact of institutional response. Journal of College Student Personnel,23,409-413.
Bonner, R. L., & Rich, A. R. (1987). Toward a predictive model of suicide ideation and behavior: Some preliminary data in college students. Suicide and Life-Threatening Behavior, 17(1), 50-63.
Bonner, R. L., & Rich, A. R. (1988a). A prospective investagation of suicide ideation of college students: A test of A model. Suicide and Life-Threatening Behavior, 18(3), 245-258.
Bonner, R. L., & Rich, A. R. (1988b). Negative life stress, social problem solving self-appraisal, and hopelessness: Implications for suicide research. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 12(6), 549-556.
Bourgeois, M. (1991). Serotonin, impulsivity and suicide. Human Psychopharmacology Clinical and Experimental, 6 ,31-36.
Brackney, B. E. & Karabenick, S. A. (1995) Psychopathology and academic performance: The role of motivation and learning strategies. Journal of CounselingPsychology, 42(4), 456-465.
Brewin, C. R. (1985). Depression and causal attributions: What is their relation? Psychological Bulletin, 98, 297-309.
Brewin, C. R. & Furnham, A. (1987). Dependency, self-criticism and depressive attributional style. British Journal of Clinical Psychology, 26(3), 225-226.
Broberg, G. C., Moran, J. D. ( 1988). Creative potential and conceptual tempo in preschool children. Creativity Research Journal, 1, 115-121.
Brown, G. L., Ebert, M. E., Goyer, P. F., Jimerson, D. C., Klrin, W. J., Bunney, W.E., & Goodwin, F. K. (1982). Aggression, suicide, and serotonin: Relationship of CSF amine metabolites. American Journal of Psychiatry, 139, 741-746.
Brown, G. L., Googwin, F. K., Ballenger, J. C., Goyer, P. F., & Major, L. F. (1979). Aggression in humans correlates with cerebrospinal fluid amine metabolites. Psychiatry Research, 1, 131-139.
Brown, G. L., Linnolia, M.I.,& Goodwin, F. K. (1992). Impulsivity, aggression, and associated affects: Relationship to self-destructive behavior and suicide. In Maris, R. W., Berman, A. L., Maltsberger, J.T. & Yufit, R.I.(Eds.).Assessment and Prediction of Suicide (pp. 589-606). Reading, NY: The Guilford Press.
Brubeck, D. & Beer, J. (1992). Depression, self-esteem, suicide ideation, death anxiety, and GPA in high school students of divorced and nondivorced parents. Psychological Reports,71, 755-763.
Bumberry, W., Oliver, J. M., & McClure, J. N., (1978). Validation of the Beck depression inventory in a university population using psychiatric estimate as the criterion. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 46(1), 150-155.
Carrillo-DE-LA-PE*A, M. T., Otero, J. M. & Romero, E. (1993). Comparison among various methods of assessment of impulsiveness. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 77, 567-575.
Chen, S. H., (1995). The role of certainty of helplessnes in comorbidity of Chinese patients. Doctoral dissertation, Emory University. Child development, 47, 218-226.
Cochran, S. D. & Hammen, C. L. (1985). Perceptions of stressful life events and depression: A test of attributional models. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 48(6), 1562-1571.
Conte, H. R., Weiner, M. B. & Plutchik, R. (1982). Measuring death anxiety: conceptual, psychometric, and factor-analytic aspects. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 43(4), 775-785.
D''Attilio, J. P. & Campbell, B. (1990). Relationship between death anxiety and suicide potential in an adolescent population. Psychological Reports, 67, 975-978.
Darwin, C. (1872). The Expression of the Emotions in Man and Animals. New York: Philosophical Library Press.
Davidson, J. A. & Mongomery, I. (1980). Impulsive suicidal behavior. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 36(1), 90-96.
de Man, A. F. & Leduc, C. P. (1995). Suicidal ideation in high school students: Depression and other correlates. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 51(2), 173-181.
Dickman, S. J. (1985). Impulsivity and perception: Individual differences in the processing of the local and global dimensions of stimuli. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 48(1), 133-149.
Dickman, S. J. (1990). Functional and dysfunctional impulsivity: Personality and cognitive correlates. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 58(1), 95-102.
Dixon, W. A., Heppner, P. P., & Anderson, W. P.(1991). Problem-solving appraisal, stress, hopelessness, and suicide ideation in a college population. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 38, 51-56.
Dixon, W. A., Heppner, P. P., & Rudd, M. D.(1994). problem-solving appraisal, hopelessness, and suicide ideation: Evidence for a mediational model. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 41(1), 91-98.
Dixon, W. A., Rumford, K. G., Heppner, P. P., & Iips, B. J.(1992). Use of difference soreces of stress to predict hopelessness and suicide ideation in a college population. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 39(3), 342-349.
Durkheim, A.(涂爾幹,民79)。Suicide(「自殺論」,黃丘隆譯)。台北市:結構群。(原稿:法文第一版1897年;英文版:G. Simpson譯,1950)
Edman, G., Asberg, M., Levander, S. & Schalling, D. (1980). Skin conductance habituation and cerebrospinal fluid 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid in suicidal patients. Archives of General Psychiatry, 43(6), 586-592.
Ekman, P. (1983). Expression and the nature of emotion. In Klaus S. Scherer & P. Ekman,(Eds.). Approaches to emotion. Hillsdale, New Jersey: Lawrence Erlbaum Press.
Engstrom, G., Alsen, M., Gustavsson, P., Schalling, D. & Traskman-Bendz, L. (1996). Classification of suicidde attempters by cluster analysis: A study of the temperamental heterogeneity in suicidal patients. Personality Individual Difference, 21(50), 687-695.
Fals-Stewart, W., Shanahan, T., Brown, L. (1995). Treating alcoholism and substance abuse: A neuropsychiatric perspective. Psychotherapy in Private Practice, 14(1), 1-21.
Fischer, E. P., Comstock, G. W., Monk, M. A. & Sencer, D. J. (1993). Characteristics of completed suicides: Implications of differences among methods. Suicide and Life Threatening Behavior, 23(2), 91-100.
Fisher, K. & Johnston, M. (1996). Experimental manipulation of perceived control and its effect on disability. Psychology and Health, 11, 657-669.
Folkman, S. (1984). Personal control and stress and coping processes: A theoretical analysis. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 46(4), 839-852.
Fombonne, E. (1998). Suicidal behaviours in vulnerable adolescents. British Journal of Psychiatry, 173, 154-159.
Freud, S. (1964). An outline of psychoanalysis. In J. Strachey(Ed. And Trans.), The Standard Edition of the Complete Psychological Work of Sigmund Freud (Vol.23). London: Hogarth. (Original work published 1940.)
Gerbing, D. W., Ahadi, S. A. & Patton, J. H. (1987). Toward a conceptualization of impulsivity: Components across the behavioral and self-report domains. Multivariate Behavioral Research, 22(3), 357-379.
Gilliland, J. & Templer, D. I. (1985-1986). Relationship of death anxiety scale factors to subjective states. Omega Journal of Death and Dying, 16(2), 155-167.
Hermann, S., Kim M., & Tulshi, S. (1994). On the distinction of suicide ideation versus attempt in elderly psychiatric inpatients. Gerontologist, 34(3), 332-339.
Herpertz, S., Steinmeyer, S. M., Marx, D. & Oidtmann, A. (1995) The significance of aggression and impulsivity for self-mutilative behavior. Pharmacopsychiatry, Oct, 28(2), 64-72.
Hoffman, J. & Hammer, R. (1994). Validation of the multi-attitude suicide tendency scale in adolescent samples. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 50(6), 847-855.
Horney, K. (1945). Our Inner Conflicts. New York: Norton Press.
Houston, D. M. (1995). Surviving a failure: Efficacy and a laboratory based test of the hopelessness model of depression. European Journal of Social Psychology, 25(5), 545-558.
Jimerson, D. C., Lesem, M. D., Kaye, W. H., Hegg, A. P. (1990). Eating disorders and depression: Is there a serotonin connection? Biological Psychiatry, 28(5), 443-454.
Kagan, J.(1966). Reflection-impulsivity: The generality and dynamics of conceptual tempo. Journal of Abnormal Psychology,71(1), 17-24.
Kelley, H. H.(1967). Attribution theory in social psychology. In D. Levine (Ed.), Nebraska Symposium on Motivation, 15, 192-238. Lincoln, NB: University of Nebraska Press.
Kendall, P. C., & Watson, D. (eds). (1989). Anxiety and depression: Distinctive and overlapping feature. New York: Academic Press.
Kennedy, H. G. & Grubin, D. H. (1990). Hot-headed or impulsive? British Journal of Addiction, 85, 639-643.
Khanna, N., Khanna, R. & Sharma, R. G. (1988). A study on death anxiety. Journal of Personality and Clinical Studies, 4(1), 47-51.
Koocher, G. P., O''Malley, J. E., Foster, D. & Gogan, J. L. (1976). Death anxiety in normal children and adolescents. Psychiatria Clinica, 9(3-4), 220-229.
Kotler, M., Finkelstein, G., Molcho, A., Botsis, A. J.(1993). Correlates of suicide and violence risk in an inpatient population: Coping styles and social support. Psychiatry Research, 47(3), 281-290.
Kovacs, M. & Beck, A. T. (1977). The wish to die and the wish to live in attempted suicides. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 33(2), 361-365.
Kuperman, S. K. & Golden, C. J. (1978). Personality correlates of attitude toward death. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 34(3), 661-663.
Lacey, J. H. & Erans, C. D. H. (1986). The impulsivist: A multi-impulsive personality disorder. British Journal of Addiction, 81, 641-649.
Lazarus, R. S. (1982). Thoughts on the relations between emotion and cognition. American Psychologist, 37(9), 1019-1024.
Lazarus, R. S. & Folkman, S. (1984). Stress, Appraisal, and Coping. New York: Springer Press.
Lennings, C. J. (1994a). An evaluation of a generalized self-efficacy scale. Personality and individual difference , 16(5), 745-750.
Lennings, C. J. (1994b). Time perspective, mood disturbance, and suicide liberation. Omega Journal of Death and Dying, 29(2), 153-164.
Lester, D.(1967). Fear of death in suicidal persons. Psychological Reports, 20, 1077-1078.
Lester, D. (1985). Depression and fear of death in a normal population. Psychological Reports, 56(3), 882.
Lester, D. (1990). Impulsivity and threatened suicide. Personality and Individual Differences, 11(10), 1097-1098.
Lester, D. (1993a). Functional and dysfunctional impulsivity and depression and suicidal ideation in a subclinical population. Journal of General Psychology, 120(2), 187-188.
Lester, D. (1993b). The structure of Templer''s death anxiety scale among egyptian students: A comment. Psychological Reports, 72, 1378.
Lester, D. (1996). Fears of death and the probability of suicide. Psychological Reports, 79, 510.
Lester, D. & Castromayor, I. (1992). The construct validity of Templer''s death anxiety scale in filipino students. The Journal of Social Psychology, 133(1), 113-114.
Lewinsohn, P. M, Rohde, P., & Seeley, J. R(1993). Psychosoical characteristics of adolescents with a history of suicide attempt. Joural of the American Academy of Child and Adolesc Psychiatry, 32:1, 60-68.
Luengo, M. A., Carrillo-DE-LA-PE*A, M. T., & Otero, J. M.(1991). The components of impulsiveness: A comparison of the I.7 Impulsiveness Questionnaire and the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale. Personality and Individual Differences, 12(7), 657-667.
Litt, M. D. (1988). Self-efficacy and perceived control: Cognitive mediators of pain tolerance. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 54(1), 149-160.
Maddux, J. E. (1995). Self-Efficacy, Adaptation, and Adjustment. (pp7-10) . New York: Plenum Press.
Maddux, J. E. & Meier, L. J. (1995). Self-efficacy and depression. In Maddux, J. E.(Ed.), Self-efficacy, Adaptation, and Adjustment: Theory, Research, and Application (pp.143-169). New York: Plenum Press.
Maris, R. W. (1981). Pathways to Suicide: A Survey of Self-Destructive Behavior. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press.
Maris, R. W. (1992a). Overview of the study of suicide assessment and prediction. In Maris, R. W., Berman, A. L., Maltsberger, J. T. & Yufit, R. I. (Eds.). Assessment and Prediction of Suicide(pp. 3-24). Reading, NY: The Guilford Press.
Maris, R. W. (1992b). How are suicides different? Assessment and prediction of suicide. In Maris, R. W., Berman, A. L., Maltsberger, J. T. & Yufit, R. I.(Eds.). Assessment and Prediction of Suicide (pp. 65-87). Reading, NY: The Guilford Press.
Maris, R. W. (1992c). The relation of nonfatal suicide attempts to completed suicides. In Maris, R. W., Berman, A. L., Maltsberger, J.T. & Yufit, R. I. (Eds.). Assessment and Prediction of Suicide, (pp. 362-380). Reading, NY: The Guilford Press.
Maris, R. W., Berman, A. L., Maltsberger, J. & Yufit, R. I. (1992). Assessment and Prediction of Suicide. NY: The Guilford Press.
Maurizio, B. & Caterina, B. (1996). HIV infection and suicidality. Journal of Affective Disorders, 38(2-3), 153-164.
McCown, W. (1988). Multi-impulsive personality disorder and multiple substance abuse: Evidence from members of self-help groups. British Journal of Addiction, 83, 431-432.
Menninger, K. (梅寧哲,民79年)。Man Against Himself(「生之掙扎」,符傳孝譯)。台北市:志文出版社。(原稿:1938年)
Metalsky, G. I., Abramson, L. Y., Seligman, M. E. P., Semmel, A., & Peterson, C. (1982).Attributional styles and life events in the classroom: Vulnerability and invulnerability to depressive mood reactions. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 43, 612-617.
Miller, L. (1991). Predicting relapse and recovery in alcoholism and addiction: Neuropsychology, personality, and cognitive style. Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment, 8(4), 277-291.
Minkoff, K., Bergman, E. Beck, A. T., & Beck, R. (1973). Hopelessness, depression and attempted suicide. Americal Journal of Psychiatry. 130, 455-459.
Needles, D. J., & Abramson, L. Y. (1990). Positive life events, attributional style, and hopefulness: Testing a model of recovery from depression. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 99(2), 156-165.
Neuringer, C. (1964). Rigid thinking in suicidal individuals. Journal of Consulting Psychology, 28(1), 54-58.
Neuringer, C. (1979). Relationship between life and death among individuals of varying levels of suicidality. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 47(2), 407-408.
O''Donnell, I., Farmer, R. & Catalan, J. (1996). Explaining suicide: The views of survivors of serious suicide attempts. British Journal of Psychiatry, 168(6), 780-786.
Oranchak, E. & Smith, T. (1988-1989). Death anxiety as a predictor of mood change in response to a death stimulus. Omega Journal of Death and Dying, 19(2), 155-161.
Orbach, I. (1981). Attraction and repulsion of life and death: A new way of understanding suicidal behavior. Children Who Don''t Want to Live, (pp 207-244). San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass Inc.
Orbach, I., Feshbach, S., Carlson, G., & Ellenberg, L. (1984). Attitudes toward life and death in suicidal, normal, and chronically ill children: An extended replication. Journal Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 52(6), 1020-1027.
Orbach, I., Feshbach, S., Carlson, G., Glaubman, H. & Gross, Y. (1983). Attraction and repulsion by life and death in suicide and in normal children. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 51(5), 661-670.
Orbach, I. & Glaubman, H. (1978). Suicidal, aggressive, and normal children''s perception of personal and impersonal death. Journal of clinical Psychology, 34(4), 850-857.
Orbach, I., Kedem, P., Gorchover, O., Apter, A. & Tyano, S. (1993). Fears of death in suicidal and nonsuicidal adolesents. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 102(4), 553-558.
Orbach, I., Milstein, A., & Har-Even, D. (1991). A multi-attitude suicide tendency scale for adolescents. Psychological Assessment: A Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 3(3), 398-404.
Orbach, I. & Carlson, G. (1984). Attitudes toward life and death in suicidal, normal, and chronically ill children: An extended replication. Journal Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 52(6), 1020-1027.
Osman, A., Barrios, F. X., Grittmann, L. R. & Osman J. R. (1993). The multi-attitude suicide tendency scale: Psychometric characteristics in an American sample. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 49(5), 701-708.
Osman, A., Barrios, F. X., Panak, W. F., Osman, J. R., Hoffman, J., & Hammer, R. (1994). Validation of the Multi-Attitude Suicide Tendency Scale in adolescent samples. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 50(6), 847-855.
Pallis, D. J. & Jenkins, J. S. (1977). Extraversion, neuroticism, and intent in attempted suicides. Psychological Reports, 41(1), 19-22.
Patsiokas, A. T., Clum, G. A. & Luscomb, R. L. (1979). Cognitive characteristics of suicide attempters. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 47(3), 478-484.
Patton, J. H., Stanford, M. S. & Barratt, E. S. (1995). Factor structure of the Barratt impulsiveness scale . Journal of Clinical Psychology, 51(6), 768-774.
Paykel, E. S., Myers, J. K., Lindenthal, J. J., & Tanner, J. (1974). Suicide feeling in the general population: A prevalence study. British Journal of Psychiatry, 124, 460-469.
Paykel, E. S., Prusoff, B., & Myers, I. (1975). Suicide attempts recent life event. Archives of General Psychiatry,32,327-333.
Pepitone-Arreola-Rockwell, F. (1981). Death anxiety: Comparison of psychiatrists, psychologists, suicidologists, and funeral directors. Psychological Reports, 49, 979-982.
Peterson, C., Semmel, A., Von Baeyer, C., Abramson, L. Y., Metalsky, G. I. & Seligman, M. E. P. (1982). The attributional style questionnaire. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 6(3), 287-300.
Pokorny, A. D. (1974). A scheme for classifying suicide behaviors. In A. T. Beck, H. L. P. Resnik, & D. J. Lettieri (Eds.), The Prediction of Suicide (pp.29-44). Browie, MD: Charles Press.
Poyurovsky, M., Halperin, E., Enoch, D., & Schneidman, M. (1995). Fluvoxamine treatment of compulsivity, impulsivity, and aggression. American Journal of Psychiatry, 152(11), 1688-1689.
Priester, M. J. & Clum, G. A. (1992). Attributional style as a diathesis in predicting depression, hopelessness, and suicide ideation in college students. Journal of Psychopathology and Behavioral Assessment, 14(2), 111-122.
Ramos-Brieva, J. A. & Cordero-Villafafila, A. (1989). Aggressiveness or low control of impulsiveness? Two hypotheses about suicide in depressives. Medical Science Research, 17(5), 229-230.
Reid, M. K. & Borkowski, J. G. (1987). Causal attributions of hyperactive children: Implications for teaching strategies and self-control. Journal of Educational Psychology, 79(3), 296-307.
Reynold, W. M. (1988). Professional Manual for Suicidal Ideation Questionnaire. Psychological Assessment Resources, Inc.
Ricci, L. C., Wellman, M. M. (1990). Monoamines: Biochemical markers of suicide? Journal of Clinical Psychology, 46(1), 106-116.
Rosenstock, H. A. (1985). Depression, suicidal ideation and suicide attempts in 900 adolescents: An analysis. Crisis, 6(2), 89-105.
Roy, A., & Linnalia, M. (1990). Monoamines and suicidal behavior. In H. M. Van Praag, R. Plutchik, & A.Apter(Eds.), Violence and Suicidology: Perspectives in Clinical and Psychological Research (pp. 141-183). New York: Brunner/Mazel Press.
Royce, J. R. & Diamond, S. R. (1980). A multifactor-system dynamics theory of emotion: Cognitive-affective interaction. Motivation and Emotion, 4(4), 263-298.
Rudd, M. D., Joiner, T. & Rajab, M. H. (1996). Relationships among suicide ideators, attempters, and multiple attempters in a young-adult sample. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 105(4), 541-550.
Schachar, R. & Logan, G. D. (1990) Impulsivity and inhibitory control in normal development and childhood psychopathology. Developmental Psychology, 26(5), 710-720.
Schmid, H., Manjee, K. & Shah, T. (1994). On the distinction of suicide ideation versus attempt in elderly psychiatric inpatients. Gerontologist, 34(3), 332-339.
Schotte D. E., & Clum, G. A. (1982).Suicide ideation in a college population: A test of a model. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 50(5), 690-696.
Schotte, D. E., & Clum, G. A. (1987). Problem-solving skills in suicidal psychiatric patients. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 55(1), 49-54.
Schultz, D. & Schultz, S. E. (1994). Gordon Allport. Theories of Personality. California: Brooks/Cole Press.
Seligman, M. E. P. (1975). Helplessness: On Depression Development, and Death. San Francisco: Freeman Press.
Seligman, M. E. P., Abramson, L. Y., Semmel, A., & von Baeyer, C.(1979). Depressive attributional style. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 88(3), 242-247.
Shek, D. T. L. (1990). Reliability and factorial structure of the Chinese version of the Beck depression inventory. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 46(1), 35-43.
Shelton, S. H. (1990). Developing the construct of general self-efficacy. Psychological Reports, 66, 987-994.
Sherer, M. & Adams, C. H. (1983). Construct validation of the Self-efficacy Scale. Psychological Reports, 53, 899-902.
Sherer, M. & Maddux, J. E. (1982). The self-efficacy scale: Construction and validation. Psychological Reports, 51, 663-671.
Shneidman, E. S. (1989). Overview: A multidimensional approach to suicide. In D.Jcob., & H. N. Brown (Eds), Suicide: Understanding and Responding (pp. 1-30). NY: International University press, Inc.
Stanford, M. S., & Barratt, E. S. (1992) Impulsivity and the multi-impulsive personality disorder. Personality and Individual Differences, 13(7), 831-834.
Steer, R. A., Rissmiller, D. J., Ranieri, W. F. & Beck, A. T. (1993). Behavioral assessment: Dimensions of suicidal ideation in psychiatric inpatients. Behavior Research Therapy, 31(2), 229-236.
Stein, D. J., Hollander, E. & Liebowitz, M. R. (1993). Neurobiology of impulsivity and the impulse control disorders. Journal of Neuropsychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences, 5(1), 9-17.
Tanaka, J. S. & Huba, G. J. (1987). Assessing the stability of depression in college students. Multivariate Behavioral Research, 22, 5-19.
Tarter, R. E., Templer, D. I. & Perley, R. L. (1974). Death anxiety in suicide attempters. Psychological Reports, 34, 895-897.
Templer, D. I.(1970). The construction and validation of a death anxiety scale. The Journal of General of Psychology, 82, 165-177.
Templer, D. I., Lester, D. & Ruff, C. F. (1974). Fear of death and Feminity. Psychological Reports, 31, 361-362.
Templer, D. I. & Ruff, C. F. (1971). DAS means, standard deviations and embedding. Psychological Reports, 29, 173-174.
The New International Webster*s Comprehensive Dictionary of the English Language. (1996). New York: Random House.
Vargo, M. (1980). Relationship between the Templer death anxiety scale and the Collett-lester fear of death scale. Psychological Reports, 46, 561-562.
Wagner, K. D. & Lorion, R. P. (1984). Correlates of death anxiety in elderly persons. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 40(5), 1235-1241.
Walen, S.R., DiGiuseppe, R. & Dryden, W. (1992). A practitioner*s guide to rational-emotive therapy(2nd ed.). New York: Oxford University Press.
Williams, C. L., Davidson, J. A. & Montgomery, I. (1980). Impulsive suicidal behavior. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 36(1), 90-94.
Woodruff, S. L. & Cashman, J. F. (1993). Task, domain, and general efficacy: A reexamination of the self-efficacy scale. Psychological Reports, 72, 423-432.
Zajonc, R. B. (1980). Feeling and thinking. American Psychologist, 35(2), 151-175.
Zajonc, R. B. (1984a). On the primacy of affect. American Psychologist, 39(2), 117-123.
Zajonc, R. B. (1984b). The interaction of affect and cognition. In Klaus S. Scherer & P. Ekman, (Eds.). Approaches to Emotion. Hillsdale, New Jersey: Lawrence Erlbaum.
QRCODE
 
 
 
 
 
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               
第一頁 上一頁 下一頁 最後一頁 top
系統版面圖檔 系統版面圖檔