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研究生(外文):Hsu, Ching-ying
論文名稱(外文):Gaze and Racism in Joseph Conrad's Heart of Darkness
指導教授(外文):Chaoyang Liao
外文關鍵詞:Joseph ConradHeart of DarknessRacismGazeJacques LacanSlavoj ZizekColonialismIdeological Fantasy
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本論文試圖探討康拉德的黑暗之心中的帝國殖民主義者的恐怖經驗。長久以來﹐「恐怖」一直是黑暗之心相關之文學批評的一個焦點﹐後結構主義和後殖民理論的興起更將關於「恐怖」的研究導向種族、階級、性別等政治議題﹐在論述理論的架構之下﹐ 這個驅勢的研究著眼於權力與論述的關聯﹐探索如何再現形塑與支撐認知結構﹐討論再現與殖民主義的共謀及其顛覆性。
English abstract:
This thesis aims to explicate horror as experienced by the imperialist masters of the nineteenth-century Belgian colony of Congo in Joseph Conrad’s Heart of Darkness. This horror has haunted a large portion of the critical legacy concerning Heart of Darkness. With the rise of post-structuralist and post-colonial theories, the critical engagement with horror turns to new political inquisitions dealing with the issues of race, class, and gender considerably framed by theories of discourse. Reading Heart of Darkness as a literary form of colonial discourse, criticism comes to designate this novella as the product both of the colonial rule and of the discursive force in accomplice with colonialism (Spurr 1). This line of criticism focuses on the relation between discourse and power, interrogating the function of representation in shaping and maintaining certain perceptual frameworks which may contribute to or subvert colonialism.
Articulating from a Lacanian perspective, this thesis proposes to go beyond the discourse analysis of colonialism and racism, to explore the tension between the colonial and the colonized, embodied most conspicuously in Marlow’s horrified visual contact with the African Other, and to unveil the relation of the experience of horror to the “uncanny logic of racism” (Zizek 1988: 154). According to Slavoj Zizek, instead of merely taking racism as discursive construction, the analysis of the uncanny logic of racism tries to unravel the dimension of enjoyment in racism, designating racism in terms of “the subject’s elementary relationship to the traumatic kernel of jouissance structurally unassimilable into his or her symbolic universe” (1988: 154- 55).
This thesis proposes an inquiry of the imperialist gaze in terms of Lacan’s thesis of the objet a and provides detailed discussions of the episodes relevant to visual experiences in Heart of Darkness. I would like to take the subject’s encounter with the gaze as the visual manifestation of the uncanny logic of racism, exploring the implications of racism in the field of vision. In order to unravel the troubled logic of the uncanny in racism, I also draw light from Lacan's theories of the Real and of fantasy as the subject’s confrontation with the structural void, and from Zizek's proposition to account for ideological fantasy in Lacanian terms.
Table of Contents
Introduction 1
Chapter One: Two Approaches to the Imperialist Gaze 6
Chapter Two: Gaze as objet a 24
Chapter Threee: Racism as Ideological Fantasy 55
Conclusion 83
Work Cited 87
Work Cited
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