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研究生:張妙如
研究生(外文):Miao-ju Chang
論文名稱:勾勒女性烏托邦:歐秀拉‧勒干的三部小說
論文名稱(外文):A Feminist Quest for Utopia: Ursula K. Le Guin's Three Novels
指導教授:張惠娟張惠娟引用關係
指導教授(外文):Professor Hui-chuan Chang
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立臺灣大學
系所名稱:外國語文學系研究所
學門:人文學門
學類:外國語文學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:1999
畢業學年度:87
語文別:英文
論文頁數:91
中文關鍵詞:女性烏托邦女性主義烏托邦主義生態學無政府主義
外文關鍵詞:feminist utopiafeminismutopianismecologyanarchism
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六○年代末期「女性烏托邦」(feminist utopia)的出現,為式微的經典烏托邦小說帶來新的活力。加入女性主義觀點的女性烏托邦頗能針貶傳統烏托邦的不足,為此一文類勾勒出嶄新的風貌。身為當代女性烏托邦作家的一員,來自加州的歐秀拉‧勒干(Ursula K. Le Guin)嘗試在此文類中做活潑多變的實驗,她所勾勒的女性烏托邦確有引人入勝處,頗能呈現女性願景。
與偏重於政府體制的傳統烏托邦大大不同,勒干所刻畫的女性烏托邦多為免於性別歧視與性別迫害的理想世界,理想國的人們往往注重人際關係,發揮合作精神,促進社區融合,珍惜自然資源及保護環境。對女性烏托邦作家而言,經濟無限擴張及科技掛帥絕非人類走向文明的不二法門。相反的,勒干和其他女性烏托邦作家傾向呼籲讀者從心態調整起,降低物質追求,以為萬物共生而努力。 除了挑戰性別議題和提供嶄新的未來願景之外,勒干在敘述手法上也有創新的表現,她引用的後現代觀點-跨文類,多重敘述,斷裂結構,作者加入對話-不但打破作者的權威迷思,更凸顯讀者主動出擊的重要性。
在此論文 吾將針對勒干的三部小說--《黑暗的左手》(The Left Hand of Darkness)(1969),《一無所有者》(The Dispossessed)(1974),《永遠返家》(Always Coming Home) (1985)--探討她如何在性別議題、未來願景與敘述手法上對烏托邦傳統進行顛覆。此三部小說將於三個不同章節逐一討論,透過研究勒干的三部小說,希望能使讀者一窺當代女性烏托邦作家所開拓的另類烏托邦。

Feminist utopia can be seen as a feminist rebuttal to utopian tradition. While the canonical utopia has been regarded as "all but dead" in the twentieth century, feminist ideology has rejuvenated the genre and made utopia come alive.
Gender distinction, the rationale of patriarchy, is the first target for scrutiny in feminist utopian novels. Since feminism is itself a heterogeneous discourse, feminist utopists depict diverse ideal futures, wherein are presented not only a powerful critique of patriarchal oppression on women, but also various gender modes closely related to the goals of women's movement. Though varied in approaches and experiments, feminist utopian writers have a shared ambition to construct a utopia where woman can be freed from sexual hierarchy, and live as an equal to man.
Feminist utopists have challenged not only the gender politics in conventional utopias, but also their utopian vision and narrative in general. The focus of feminist utopists has shifted from efficient government systems to human relationships and personalities. People in feminist utopias are portrayed as prone to value process and cooperation rather than result and competition as endorsed in male utopias. Feminist eulogy of cultural diversity is further reinforced by the emphasis on the relationship between humanity and nature. In revolt against human exploitation of nature for endless economic growth and material affluence, feminist utopian writers usually advocate the values of scarcity and ecology. Not meant to regress to pre-civilization tribalism, such feminist utopias are portrayed as having high technology, but in a limited use. Feminist utopists explore new feminist behavioral modes rather than any technological transformation in the novel. As to narrative strategy, feminist utopian writers employ a number of postmodern ideas and uphold the active role of the reader by using the strategies of multiple narrators, non-linear narrative, and self-reflexive commentary on the textual operations. The narrative tradition of realism is thoroughly subverted.
As a major feminist utopian writer, Ursula K. Le Guin has not only laid bare gender as a social construct in her utopian novels, but also helped modify the canonical tradition of utopia. In this paper, I will focus on Le Guin's three chief utopian novels-The Left Hand of Darkness (1969), The Dispossessed (1974) and Always Coming Home (1985). These three novels of Le Guin's represent different phases in Le Guin's treatment of gender politics, utopian vision and narrative strategy and will be respectively discussed in three chapters. Through a study of Le Guin's three novels, I attempt to show that contemporary feminist utopias have opened a broad utopian horizon of possibilities as a point of departure to construct our futures.

IntroductionUtopia: A Feminist Perspective1
Chapter OneUtopia as Androgynous in The Left Hand of Darkness14
Chapter TwoUtopia as Anarchic in The Dispossessed37
Chapter ThreeAn Archaeology of the Future in Always Coming Home 57
Conclusion 78
Works Cited83

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