(3.237.234.213) 您好!臺灣時間:2021/03/09 13:05
字體大小: 字級放大   字級縮小   預設字形  
回查詢結果

詳目顯示:::

我願授權國圖
: 
twitterline
研究生:林貴崑
研究生(外文):Lin Kwei-Kun
論文名稱:利用數值地形模型自動化分析構造地形指標:以中央山脈南段西南翼為例
論文名稱(外文):Geomorphic Index Study by DEM: An Example from Southwestern Limb of Southern Part of the Central Range, Taiwan
指導教授:陳于高陳于高引用關係李建成李建成引用關係
指導教授(外文):Chen Yue-GauLee Jian-Cheng
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立臺灣大學
系所名稱:地質學研究所
學門:自然科學學門
學類:地球科學學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:1999
畢業學年度:87
語文別:中文
論文頁數:109
中文關鍵詞:地理資訊系統地形指標
外文關鍵詞:Geomorphic Information SystemGeomorphic index
相關次數:
  • 被引用被引用:10
  • 點閱點閱:275
  • 評分評分:系統版面圖檔系統版面圖檔系統版面圖檔系統版面圖檔系統版面圖檔
  • 下載下載:0
  • 收藏至我的研究室書目清單書目收藏:1
所謂的地形指數就是以數量化的形式,表示地形的幾何形態,地形學家常常利用這些地形指數來描述和比較不同的地形,這些結果也可以用來研究活動構造。地理資訊系統利用電腦的計算與記憶能力,來處理、儲存以及分析龐大的地理資料,以達快速且正確的現代化科學目的。筆者希望透過地理資訊系統分析數值地形模型,計算出各種地形指數,來探討中央山脈南段西南翼地區的地質與地形問題。本研究分析了測高曲線、盆地的不對稱性、山麓前緣彎曲度與河流坡降指數等地形指數。另一方面,藉由地質調查與構造分析來評估所分析之地形指數與地質資料間的關聯性。最後則綜合了不同的分析結果,對研究區域的新期構造特性進行了較深入的討論。
本研究區域中來社溪流域中次集水區測高曲線積分值多集中於0.3到0.4之間,顯示此區抬升較其他區域快。盆地的不對稱性指數則顯示在隘寮北溪、力里溪與楓港溪的次集水區中北岸面積較南岸面積大。山麓前緣彎曲度分析顯示,隘寮溪流域與力里溪流域抬升速率較低,屬於相對的沈降中心。以這三個地形指數看來,隘寮北溪與力里溪為地殼抬升速率較慢的區域。河流坡降指數則顯示出整個研究區都處於抬升的狀態,而抬升的速率由北而南遞減。地質調查與構造分析剖析研究區的應力形式可分為三期,第一期為南和地區所見之逆斷層,第二期以平移斷層為主大多數的地區都可發現,第三期為正斷層以來社溪流域最為常見。由此可見應力的變化由水平向擠壓轉換成伸張,這表示目前研究區內的應變由以前的水平壓縮演變成後期垂直向的升降。
綜合構造地形指數與構造分析結果,本研究區處於抬升狀態,且以來社溪流域為抬升速率最快的地區,流域內武潭、佳興、來義等地區的應力分析結果也證明這一點。
Geomorphic indices are defined as quantitative measurement of landscape, and allow geomorphologists to objectively compare different landforms. They may be useful to identify specific characteristics of an area, especially for its situation of tectonic activity. The geographic information system (GIS) is a computer system capable of assembling, storing, manipulating, and displaying geographically referenced information. Using GIS helps scientists to attain the object fast and correctly. In this study, I present the analyzed results of the southwestern limb of south part of the Central Range by means of using GRID module of ARC/INFO to calculate some geomorphic indices concluding hypsometric curve, Basin asymmetry factor, mountain front sinuosity, and stream length-gradient index. Finally, we combine geomorphic indices, paleostress analysis and geologic data to discuss the relationship between these data and possible neotectonic effects.
In the Lai-She-Hsi catchment, the values of hypsometric curve integral, range form 0.3 to 0.4, represent that the uplift rate is higher than other catchments. The index values of basin asymmetric factor of sub-basins in the Ai-Liao-Pei-Hsi, Li-Li-Hsi, and Feng-Kang-Hsi are all over 50. This represents that the area of the northern side is larger than of the southern side, and reflects that the uplift rate of the northern side is higher than that of the southern side. My results of mountain front sinuosity present that the uplift rates of drainage of the Ai-Liao-Hsi and Li-Li-Hsi are relatively low. Based on my data of above three indices, the uplift rate of the Ai-Liao-Pei-Hsi and Li-Li-His are both relatively low. In addition, my result of stream length-gradient index shows that the study area is uplifting, and uplift rates of sub-basins are decreasing from north to south. Paleostress analysis shows that there are three tectonic stages in this area. The first stage is a thrust fault type reflecting the compressing force, the second stage is a strike-slip fault type, and the third stage is a normal fault type reflecting spreading event. Based on the field observation, it seems that the stress of this area changes from horizontal compression to extension. It infers that the study area has experienced a tectonic history, from early laterally shortening to late vertically block-faulting.
Consequently, both of geomorphic indices and paleostress analysis indicate that the study area is uplifting, and the highest uplift rate occurs in the drainage basin of Lai-She-Hsi.
第一章 緒論 1
1.1研究動機 1
1.2前人研究 2
1.2.1地形指數 2
1.2.2研究區概況 3
1.2.2.1潮州斷層 3
1.2.2.2中央山脈西南翼山區地質概述 6
1.3研究目的與方法 7
1.3.1研究目的 7
1.3.2研究方法 9
1.3.2.1構造地形指數定量化計算 9
1.3.2.2野外地質調查籍構造分析 9
第二章 活動構造之地形指數 10
2.1活動構造與地形指數之關係 10
2.2地形指數 10
2.2.1Hypsometric Curve and Hypsometric Integral 11
2.2.2Drainage Basin Asymmetry 14
2.2.2.1Asymmetric factor 14
2.2.2.2Transverse topographic symmetric factor 17
2.2.3Stream Length-gradient Index 19
2.2.4Mountain-front Sinuosity 21
第三章 地形指數分析方法 24
3.1研究工具簡介:地理資訊系統 24
3.2數值地形模型25
3.2.1簡介 25
3.2.2數值地形模型生產方式26
3.2.3數值地形的資料模式 27
3.2.4應用層面 30
第四章 構造地形指數分析 32
4.1研究設備 32
4.2基本地形資料之數值分析計算 32
4.2.1坡度坡向 33
4.2.2水系、集水區的取得 37
4.2.3等高線 43
4.3構造地形指數分析取得 43
4.3.1測高曲線 43
4.3.2盆地不對稱性48
4.3.3山麓前緣彎曲度 53
4.3.4河流坡降指數57
第五章 野外構造地質工作 70
5.1野外工作項目及方法 70
5.1.1岩層的岩性、位態 70
5.1.2構造分析 72
5.1.2.1斷層滑痕的觀察與滑動方向之判定 72
5.1.2.2多次斷層變形作用時期分析 75
5.2野外工作結果 76
5.2.1區域地質概況76
5.2.2古應力分析結果 76
第六章 綜合討論87
6.1地形資料量化過程討論 87
6.1.1集水區製作的參數 87
6.1.2等高線製作的方式 87
6.2構造地形指數 90
6.3野外觀察 92
6.4相較於前人研究 93
6.4.1三角點檢測成果 93
6.4.2地形指數與地層、構造的比較 95
第七章 結論 97
參考文獻 99
附錄一 105
參考文獻
中文部分
六角兵吉、牧山鶴彥(1934) 恆春油田地質圖─北幅。
石再添、鄧國雄(1983) 潮州斷層帶的活斷層與地形。國立台灣師範大學地理學研究,第7期,第17-34頁。
石再添、鄧國雄、張瑞津、石慶得、楊貴三、許民楊(1984) 台灣西部與南部活斷層的地形學研究。師大地理研究所地理研究報告,第10期,第49-94頁。
宇佐美衛、松本隆一(1940) 十萬分之一地質圖幅─大武圖幅。
何信昌(1995) 台灣南部三地至知本主山之間道路沿線地層及構造研究。國立台灣大學地質學研究所碩士論文,共79頁。
何春蓀(1986) 台灣地質概論,台灣地質圖說明書。經濟部中央地質調查所出版,共118頁。
何春蓀(1982) 台灣地體構造的演變,台灣地體構造圖說明書。經濟部中央地質調查所出版,共110頁。
李建成(1989) 台灣北部的新構造運動:斷層與古應力的分布研究。國立台灣大學地質學研究所碩士論文,共128頁。
李錫堤(1986) 大地應力分析與弧陸碰撞對於台灣北部古應力場變遷之影響。國立台灣大學地質學研究所博士論文。
宋國城(1991) 五萬分之一台灣地質圖說明書,恆春半島,圖幅第六十九號(恆春)、圖幅第七十號(滿州)、圖幅第七十二號(鵝鑾鼻)。經濟部中央地質調查所出版,共77頁。
宋國城、林偉雄(1993) 五萬分之一台灣地質圖說明書,枋寮,圖幅第六十七號。經濟部中央地質調查所出版,共37頁。
林朝棨(1957) 台灣地形。台灣省文獻委員會出版,共424頁。
林偉雄、林啟文、高銘健(1993) 五萬分之一台灣地質圖說明書,大武,圖幅第六十八號。經濟部中央地質調查所出版,共37頁。
胡賢能、朱傚祖、鄭瑞璋(1981) 台灣南部板岩系地層與構造之初步研究。經濟部中央地質調查所彙刊,第一號,第33-60頁。
胡賢能、詹新甫(1984) 台灣南迴鐵路沿線地區板岩系地層之構造研究。經濟部中央地質調查所刊,第三號,第25-43頁。
徐鐵良(1984) 地質與工程。中國工程師學會出版,共494頁。
陳惠芬(1984) 從三角點檢測成果見到的台灣的地盤升降。經濟部中央地質調查所特刊,第三號,第127-140頁。
陳肇夏、莊德永(1989) 台灣中央山脈西南翼之地質,兼論中央山脈的一些主要構造。經濟部中央地質調查所彙刊,第五號,第1-18頁。
鳥居敬造(1933) 高雄州旗山油田調查報告。台灣總督府殖產局,第732號。
張慧中(1986)台灣南部潮州斷層北段之新期構造研究。國立台灣大學地質學研究所碩士論文,共56頁。
張徽正、林啟文、陳勉銘、盧詩丁(1998) 台灣活動斷層概論,五十萬分之一台灣活動斷層分布圖說明書。經濟部中央地質調查所特刊,第十號,共103頁。
鄒豹君(1983) 小地形學。共256頁。
楊貴三(1986) 台灣活斷層地形學研究─特論活斷層與地形面的關係。私立中國文化大學地學研究所博士論文,共178頁。
蔡宗勳(1994) 數值高度模型之地形量度研究。國立台灣地理學研究所碩士論文,共210頁。
賴進貴(1993) 稜線及谷系自動析取的可行性分析與評估。行政院國家科學委員會專題研究計畫成果報告,共65頁。
顏滄波、吳永順(1987) 台灣南部枋寮大武地區之地質。中國地質學會專刊,第八號,第251-258頁。
英文部分
Anderson, E.M.(1951) The Dynamics of Faulting. Oliver & Boyd, Edinburg, 206p.
Angelier, J.(1979) Neotectoniqe de I''arc egeen. Thesis, Univ. Paris, et Soc. Geol. Nord, Publ., 3418p.
Angelier, J.(1984) Tectonic analysis of fault slip data sets. Jour. Geophys. Res, vol. 89, 5835-5848.
Angelier, J., Barrier, E., Chu, H. T.(1986) Paleostress trajectories related to plate collision in the Foothills fold-thrust belt of Taiwan. Mem. Geol. Soc. China, no. 7, 201-217.
Aronoff, S.(1993) Geographic Information System: a management perspective.
Barrier, E. and Angelier, J.(1984) Collision in the eastern Taiwan: the Coastal Range and the Longitudinal Valley. Sino-French colloquium on Geodynamics of the Eurasian-Phillippine Sea Plate Boundary, 24.
Band, L.E.(1986) Topographic partition of watersheds with Digital Elevation Models. Water Resources Research, vol. 22, no. 1, 15-24.
Biq, Chingchang(1972) Western Taiwan thrusts, active or inactive? Acta Geologica Taiwanic, no. 15, 63-75.
Brockelbank, D.C., and A.P. Tan(1991) Stereo elevation determination techniques for SPOT imagery. Photogrammetric Engineering & Remote Sensing, vol. 57, no. 8, 1056-1073.
Brown, W.G.(1975) Casper Mountain area (Wyoming)-structural model of Laramide deformation (Abs.): AAPG Bull., vol. 59, 906.
Bull, W.B., and L.D. McFadden(1977) Tectonic geomorphology of the Mojave Desert. U.S. Geol. Sur. Con. Rep.
Bull, W.B.(1977) Tectonic geomorphology of the Mojave Desert. U.S. Geological Survey Contract Report14-08-001-G-394.
Burrough, P.A.(1986) Principles of Geographic Information Systems for Land Resources Assessment, Oxford: Clarendon Press.
Carter, J.R.(1988) Digital representations of topographic surface. Photogrammetric Engineering and Remote Sensing, vol. 54, 1577-1580.
Chiang, S. C.(1971) Seismic study of the Chaochou structure, Pingtung, Taiwan. Petrol. Geol. Taiwan, no. 8, 281-294.
Chou, Y.H.(1992) Slope-line detection in a vector-based GIS. Photogrammetric Engineering and Remote Sening, vol.58, no. 2, 227-233.
Clark, S., and G. Carver(1992) Holocene tectonics and Paleoseimicity, Southern Cascadia subduction zone. Science, vol. 255, 188-192.
Cox, R.T.(1994) Analysis of drainage basin symmetry as a rapid technique to identify areas of possible Quaternary tilt-block tectonics: an example from the Mississippi Embayment. Geol. Soc. Am. Bull., vol. 106, 571-581.
Elliott, D.(1976) The energy balance and deformation mechanisms of thrust sheets. Phil Trans. R. Soc., 283A, 289-312.
ESRI, Inc.(1992) ARC/INFO User''s Guide─GRID Command References, ver6.1, CA, USA: ESRI, Inc.
Gamond, J.J.(1983) Displacement features associated with fault zones: a comparison between observed examples and experiments on sandstone. Bull. Geol. Soc. Am., vol. 85, 937-942.
Gardner, T.W., K.C. Sasowski, and R.L. Day(1990) Automated extraction of geomorphometric properties from digital elevation data. Zeitshrift fur Geomorphologie Supplement, vol. 80, 57-68.
Gardner, T.W., W. Back, T.F. Bullard, P.W. Hare, R.H. Kesel, D.R. Lowe, C.M. Menges, S.C. Mora, F.J. Pazzaglia, I.D. Sasowski, J.W. Troester, and S.G. Wells(1987) Central America and the Caribbean. W.L. Geomorphic Systems of North America, Centennial Special Volumme 2.
Hack, J.T.(1973) Stream-profile analysis and stream-gradient index. U.S. Ggeol. Sur. Jour. Res., vol. 1, 421-429.
Hare, P.W., and T.W. Gardner(1985) Geomorphic indicators of vertical neotectonism along converging plate margins, Nicoya Peninsula, Costa Rica. Tectonic Geomorphology: Proceedings of the 15th Annual Binghamton Geomorphology Symposium, September 1984. Allen & Unwin: Boston.
Horn, B.K.P. (1982) Hill shading and the reflectance map. Geo-Processing, vol. 2, no. 1, 603-609.
Hsu, T.L. and H.C. Chang(1979) Quaternary faulting in Taiwan. Mem. Geol. Soc. China, no. 3, 155-165.
Jose A. M. and H. J. Stuiver(1998) Automated delineation of drainage networks and elementary catchments from digital elevation models. ITC Journal (Publication of the International Institute of Aerial Survey and Earth Sciences) , 1998-3, 198-208.
Keller, E.A.(1977) Adjustments of drainage to bedrock in regions of contrasting tectonic framework. Geol. Soc. Am. Abs. Pro., vol. 9, 1046.
Keller, E.A.(1986) Investigation of active tectonics: use of surgical earth processes. Panel in Active Textonics.
Keller, E.A. and P. Nicholas(1996) Active tectonics-Earthquakes, Uplift, and Landscape. 338p.
Keller, E.A. and T.K. Rockwell(1984) Tectonic geomorphology, Quaternary chronology and paleoseismology. In J.E. Costa and P.J. Fleisher (eds.), Delevlopments and Applications of Geomorphology.
Lee, C. T. and Wang Y.(1988) Quaternary stress changes in northern Taiwan and their tectonic implication. Proc. Geol. Soc. China, vol. 31, no. 1, 154-168.
Lee, J.(1991) Comparison of existing methods for building Triangulated Irregular Network models of terrain from Grid Digital Elevation Models. Int. Jour.l of Geogtaphical Information Systems, vol. 5, no3, 267-285.
Mark, D.M.(1978) Concepts of data structure for Digital Terrain Models. Proc. DTM symposium, ASP-ACSM, 24-31.
Mark, D.M.(1983) Relations between field-surveyed channel networks and map-based geomorphometric measures, Inez, Kentucky. Annals of the Association of American Geographers, vol. 73, no. 2, 358-372.
Mark, D.M.(1984) Automated detection of drainage networks from Digital Elevation Models. Cartographica(Auto-Carto Six Selected Papers), vol. 21, no. 2ſ, 168-187.
Merrits, D., and K.R. Vincent(1989) Geomorphic response of coastal streams to low-intermediate, and high rates of uplift, Mendocino Triple Junction region, Northern California. Geol. Soc. Am. Bull., vol. 101, 1373-1388.
Miller, C.L., and R.A. Laflamme(1958) The Digital Terrains Model─theory and application. Photogrammetric Engineering, vol. 24, no. 3, 433-442.
Meng, C.Y.(1967) The structural development of the southern half of western Taiwna. Petrol. Geol. Taiwan, no. 2, 1-20.
Muller, J.P.(1993) From reaction to cognition: 5th European Workshop in Modeling Autonomous Agents in a Multi-agent World, MAAMAW ''93, Neuchatel, Switzerland, Auguest 1993, 252p.
O''Callaghan, J.F., and D.M. Mark(1984) The extraction of drainage networks from digital elevation data. Computer Vision, Graphics, and Image Proceeding, no. 28, 323-344.
Petit, J.(1987) Criteria fot the sense of movement on fault surfaces in brittle rocks. Jour. Struct. Geol., vol. 9, 597-608.
Pike, R.J., and S.E. Wilson(1971) Elevation-relief ratio, hypsometric integral and geomorphic area-altitude analysis. Geol. Soc. Am. Bull., vol. 62, 1079-1084.
Price, N.(1968) Fault and Joint development in brittle and semi-brittle rocks. Pergamon Press, 176.
Peucher, T.K., R.J. Foeler, J.J. Little, and D.M.Mark(1978) The triangulated irregular network. Pro. DTM Symposium, 516-540.
Sharpnack, D.A. and G. Akin(1969) An algorithm for computing slope and aspect from elevations. Photogrammetric Engineering, vol. 35, no. 3, 247-248.
Shreve, R. L.(1966) Statistical Law of stream number. Journal of Geology, vol 74, 17-37.
Strahler, A.N.(1952) Hypsometric(area-altitude) analysis of erosional topography. Geol. Soc. Am. Bull., vol. 63, 1117-1142.
Strahler, A.N.(1957) Quantitative analysis of watershed geomorphology. Transactions of the American Geophysical Union, vol. 8, no. 6, 913-920.
Teng, L.S.(1987) Straigraphic records of the late Cenozoic Penglai Orogeny of Taiwan. Acta Geol. Taiwanica, vol. 25, 205-224.
Theodossiou, E.I., and I.J. Dowman(1990) Heighting accuracy of SPOT. Photogrammetric Engineering & Remote Sensing, vol. 56, no. 12, 1643-1649.
Tomita, Y.(1955) Some geomorphological consideration to the Chaochou Fault in South Taiwan (Formosa), Chian. Science Reports of the Tohoku Univ. ser 7, no. 4, 58-66.
Tsan, S.F. and W.P. Keng(1968) The Neogenerocks and major structural features of southwestern Taiwan. Proc. Geol. Soc. China, no. 11, 45-49.
USGS(1983) USGS digital cartographic data standard. Digital Elevation Models. Geological Survey Circular 895-B.
Weibel, R., and M. Heller(1991) Digital terrain modeling. In Maguire, D.J. et al.(eds), Geographical Infromation Systems: Principles and Application, London: Longman.
Welch, R.A.(1990) 3-D terrain modeling for GIS applications. GIS World, vol. 3, no. 5, 26-30.
White, S.H., and Green P.F.(1986) Tectonic development of the Alpine fault zone, New Zealand: A Fission-track study. Geology, vol. 14, 124-127.
Wu, F.T.(1978) Recent tectonics of Taiwan. Jour. Phys. Earth, 26: supp., S265-S299.
Yen, T.P. and Pei-Lin Tien(1986) Chaochou Fault in Southern Taiwan. Proc. Geol. Soc. China, no. 29, 9-22.
Yoeli, P.(1967) The mechanisation of analytical Hill Shading. The Cartographic Journal, vol. 4, no. 2, 82-88.
Yoeli, P.(1975) Compilation of data for computer-assisted relief cartography. Display & Analysis of Spatial Data, 352-367.
Yoeli, P.(1983) Digital Terrain Models and their cartographic and cartometric utilisation. The Cartographic Journal, vol. 20, no. 1, 17-22.
Zhoa, X.(1990) Tectonic geomorphology and soil chronology of the Frazier Mountain area, Western Transverse Ranges, California. PH.D. dissertation. University of California, Santa Barbara, California.
QRCODE
 
 
 
 
 
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               
第一頁 上一頁 下一頁 最後一頁 top
系統版面圖檔 系統版面圖檔