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研究生:葉淑丹
研究生(外文):Shu-Dan Yeh
論文名稱:黃緣螢(鞘翅目:螢科)之棲地管理及食物偏好性
論文名稱(外文):The Habitat Management and Food Preference of an Aquatic Firefly, Luciola ficta (Coleoptera: Lampyridae)
指導教授:楊平世楊平世引用關係
指導教授(外文):Ping-Shih Yang
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立臺灣大學
系所名稱:昆蟲學研究所
學門:生命科學學門
學類:生物學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:1999
畢業學年度:87
語文別:中文
論文頁數:101
中文關鍵詞:黃緣螢棲地管理食物偏好性螢火蟲戴爾法則發育時間
外文關鍵詞:Luciola fictaHabitat managementFood preferenceFireflyDyar''s ruleDevelopmental time
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本論文主要從事黃緣螢(Luciola ficta Olivier, 1909)幼蟲野放試驗及室內幼蟲之食性探討。以台北市信義區虎山溪作為試驗野放黃緣螢的地點,期望從復育黃緣螢的過程中,除了藉由清溪、教育宣導、棲地營造和釋放黃緣螢幼蟲(以下簡稱幼蟲)的活動中,促進社區民眾對生態環境的瞭解和認同,提高大眾保護自然環境的意願,同時進行螢火蟲的野放生態研究,累積棲地管理上的實務經驗。經過底質、流速和溪流動物的調查評估之後,選擇在主流旁的鋪石平台上小山溝作為主要野放區域,於1998年2月22日野放700隻3-5齡幼蟲;野放後每個星期進行幼蟲數量的追蹤。在4月中旬以標識再捕法估計成蟲數量,一夜最高的成蟲數量估計達44隻,並發現雌蟲在蘚苔植物上產卵,其後發現到有第二代幼蟲,但直到論文截稿為止,未發現第三代的幼蟲。進行野放過程出現的許多有關棲地管理的問題,例如:各級政府及基層民眾間之溝通、水質污染、棲地破壞及燈光管制等。在室內試驗部份,除了黃緣螢幼蟲各齡頭殼寬增長比例符合戴爾法則(Dyar''s rule)以外,頭殼長度和前胸背板長寬度均呈幾何級數的增長,亦符合戴爾法則(Dyar''s rule),幼蟲各齡外部形態的差異以及頭殼和前胸背板的增長特性可作為判斷齡期的依據。在25℃光照條件12D:12L生長箱中,黃緣螢幼蟲共有6個齡期,1~ 6齡幼蟲發育時間各為26.1 ± 0.6、25.0 ± 1.1、36.3 ± 1.2、45.7 ± 2.6、61.3 ± 2.5和52.4 ± 6.9天,共270.5天。在食物偏好試驗的結果,發現在所供應的三種食物(拉都希蛙的蝌蚪、褐吻蝦虎、石田螺)中,南港幼蟲對蝌蚪有取食偏好;陽明山和南港的幼蟲對所供應的六種螺肉(囊螺、石田螺、中國福田螺、福壽螺、川蜷、臺灣蜆)無取食偏好;六齡幼蟲取食殼寬在1.6 ~ 2.4 mm,殼高2.8 ~ 10.9 mm之間的川蜷;而從五種螺類的試驗中,發現幼蟲對螺的種類並無顯著的取食偏好,推測幼蟲捕食螺類的因子在於螺類是否容易捕獲,而非螺的種類。
Study on ecology of aquatic firefly, Luciola ficta Olivier, were carried out in the field and the laboratory. The fireflies were reintroduced in the Hu-Shan Creek, Taipei by means of reconstructing their habitat and releasing their larvae to establish its population and restore its habitat. Seven hundred larvae of the 3rd ~ 5th instars were released in a runnel aside the Creek, on Feb. 22th, 1998, and the numbers of larvae were monitored weekly. The numbers of adults were estimated daily by mark-recaptured method from April 16th to April 23th. The estimated number of adults reached maximum (44) on April 18th. The females were observed to lay eggs on the bryophytes. The laid eggs hatched, and these larvae perhaps grew up to adults in the field, but didn''t last to the next generation. Water pollution, habitat destruction, and streetlight were regarded as the major reasons that the fireflies were unable to establish their population. In the laboratory experiments, beside the growth of head capsule width between each larval instar corresponded to Dyar''s rule, the growth of the head capsule length and the length and width of prontum were examined to correspond to Dyar''s rule. The larval instar could be recognized by the morphological difference among each larval instar and the character that the growth of length and width of head capsule and prontum correspond to Dyar''s rule. In the growth experiment with 12L:12D photoperiod at 25℃, each of the developmental time from 1st to 6th instar larvae were 26.1 ± 0.6, 25.0 ± 1.1, 36.3 ± 1.2, 45.7 ± 2.6, 61.3 ± 2.5, and 52.4 ± 6.9 days, respectively. On the food preference of the 6th instar larvae, the larvae collected from rice field in Nan-Kang preferred the tadpole of Rana latouchii to freshwater snail of Sinotaia quadrata and fish of Rhinogobius brunneus. The larvae collected from two places showed no significant differences in feeding proportion among six freshwater snail species without shell. The shell width and length of the freshwater snails caught by the 6th instar larvae were from 1.6 to 2.4 mm and 2.8 to 10.9 mm, respectively. In another experiment, larvae showed no feeding preference among five species of freshwater snails. The factors that effected the larvae preyed on the freshwater snails depended on the body size of snails rather than the species.
壹、前言............................................................................................ 1
貳、前人研究.................................................................................... 3
參、材料與方法
一、野外試驗部份
(一)、試驗地點........................................................................... 11
(二)、試驗地點環境調查........................................................... 13
(三)、野放蟲源........................................................................... 14
(四)、族群估算........................................................................... 14
二、室內試驗部份
(一)、供試蟲源............................................................................ 16
(二)、黃緣螢幼蟲之飼養觀察.................................................... 16
(三)、幼蟲食物偏好性................................................................ 17
肆、結果與討論
一、野外試驗結果
(一)、試驗地點的環境調查結果................................................ 22
(二)、幼蟲存活數量.................................................................... 23
(三)、成蟲發生數量 ................................................................ 24
(四)、陸棲螢火蟲的發生............................................................ 26
二、室內試驗結果
(一)、黃緣螢卵及幼蟲形態........................................................ 28
(二)黃緣螢幼蟲發育時間............................................................ 31
(三)、黃緣螢幼蟲對食物種類的偏好性.................................... 33
伍、黃緣螢棲地經營管理問題及建議事項
一、野放經過及棲地經營管理過程................................................ 42
二、棲地經營管理問題及討論........................................................ 46
陸、結論............................................................................................ 50
柒、致謝............................................................................................ 52
捌、引用文獻.................................................................................... 53
表........................................................................................................ 62
圖........................................................................................................ 71
附錄一................................................................................................ 98
附錄二................................................................................................ 99
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