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研究生:林昕佑
研究生(外文):HsinYu Lin
論文名稱:台灣東北角海兔的分類與族群生態之研究
論文名稱(外文):Studies on the Taxonomy and Population Ecology of the Sea Hare in the Northeast Coast of Taiwan
指導教授:王健雄鄭明修
指導教授(外文):Wang Chien HsiungJeng Ming Shou
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立臺灣大學
系所名稱:海洋研究所
學門:自然科學學門
學類:海洋科學學類
論文出版年:1999
畢業學年度:87
語文別:中文
論文頁數:81
中文關鍵詞:海兔族群生態分類
外文關鍵詞:seaharesea hareAplysiapopulation ecologytaxonomy
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本研究調查台灣東北角的海兔族群生態,於1998年2月到1999年5月的調查期間,採集到海兔標本共計有4科4屬9種,分別屬於:海兔科(Aplysiidae):Aplysia juliana 染斑海兔、Aplysia oculifera 眼斑海兔、Aplysia dactylomela 黑指紋海兔、Aplysia parvula 黑邊海兔、Aplysia kurodai 黑斑海兔;背肛海兔科(Notarchidae):Stylocheilus longicaudus 長尾柱唇海兔、Stylochelus sp.;斧殼海兔科(Dolabriferidae):Dolabrifera dolabrifera 斧殼海兔;截尾海兔科(Dolabellidae): Dolabella auricularia 耳狀截尾海兔。
以其中4種海兔進行族群的生態研究,結果發現海兔屬種類的生活史以一年為週期,在每年秋末海兔成體開始出現,翌年1月左右族群數目到達最高峰,2月後族群數量開始逐漸下降,6月海兔成體消失於海蝕平台,此時海兔族群可能以浮游幼生型態生活於廣闊的海域中。在選定的4個測站上分析研究結果,發現海兔成體的體型差異與棲地的水流速度與食物種類有相關,在大掘澳測站的樣區內水流較緩、滸苔生長較茂盛的環境中,海兔成體有較大的體型。
在海兔對棲地選擇的研究方面,發現不同海兔種類有其偏好的棲地類型:眼斑海兔較偏好大型綠藻茂盛的潮溝;染斑海兔則喜歡棲息在大型礁岩下方;長尾柱唇海兔則喜好水流較緩和的潮池或潮溝;斧殼海兔所偏好的棲地較不明顯。多種海兔成體族群豐度常有劇烈變動,可能與其環境因子和海兔生活史有關,海兔成體的豐度取決於其族群的移動,至於在亞潮帶著生與變態的海兔會受到潮間帶大型綠藻的誘引,往潮間帶移動而造成生殖聚集;決定潮間帶海兔成體族群的豐富度,可能與當地大型綠藻開始生長的時間與其豐富度有關,而且與當地地形和海流是否有利於海兔成體移入、以及附近的亞潮帶是否有大量海兔新生補充群等因素有著密切的關係。

Population ecology of the sea hare(Anaspidea:Gastropoda)in the northeast coast of Taiwan was investigated from February 1998 to May 1999. A total of 9 species(in 4 genera of 4 families)of sea hares were identified, i.e., Aplysiidae:Aplysia juliana, Aplysia oculifera, Aplysia dactylomela, Aplysia parvula, Aplysia kurodai;Notarchidae:Stylocheilus longicaudus, Stylocheilus sp.;Dolabriferidae:Dolabrifera dolabrifera;Dolabellidae:Dolabella auricularia.
Population ecology of four species of the sea hares, Aplysia juliana, Aplysia oculifera, Stylocheilus longicaudus, Dolabrifera dolabrifera, at four sites were studied for the study of population ecology. The results showed that these sea hares had an annual life cycle. The adults were first found in the end of autumn. Then the number of total population reached its peak in next January. The population began to decrease in February. In sure, all the adult sea hares disappeared from the wave-carved sandstone flatform. In the meantime, the sea hares might exist in the ocean as plankton is larvae. Moreover, the results of four study sites showed the body size of adult sea hare was significantly related to the flow speed and food supply in the habitat. At Da-Jae Bay, adult sea hares had larger body size possibly due to slower water flow and more abundant macroalgae.
In the study of habitat preference, different species may prefer to live in different habitat. Aplysia oculifera preferred to live in surge channel where macroalgae were more abundant. Aplysia juliana was commonly found under the rock pile, and Stylocheilus longicaudus preferred to live in tidal pools and surge channels with slower water flow. But Dolabrifera dolabrifera did not show habitat preference. Population of the four species of adult sea hares often varies dramatically. It might be related to environmental factors or their life history characteristics. The abundance of adult sea hares was primarily determined by migration. The larvae of sea hares were likely settled and metamorphosed in the subtidal that might be induced by green macroalgae, then the adults moved to intertidal and aggregated for breeding. Secondarily, population of the intertidal adult sea hares might be related to the growing season and abundance of green macroalgae. Furthermore, it might be related to the topography, and the number of existing subtidal population.

壹、前言----------------------------------------------------1
貳、研究地點------------------------------------------------5
參、材料與方法----------------------------------------------8
一、海兔的分類----------------------------------------8
二、海兔的族群調查------------------------------------9
三、海兔的棲地選擇------------------------------------10
四、環境因子的調查------------------------------------12
肆、結果----------------------------------------------------13
一、台灣東北角海兔的分類------------------------------13
二、環境因子的調查------------------------------------39
三、海兔的族群動態------------------------------------42
四、海兔的棲地選擇------------------------------------53
伍、討論----------------------------------------------------57
一、台灣東北角海兔的分類------------------------------------57
二、環境因子的調查------------------------------------------60
三、海兔的族群動態------------------------------------61
四、海兔的棲地選擇------------------------------------65
五、海兔的生活史--------------------------------------66
陸、參考文獻------------------------------------------------71
柒、附錄----------------------------------------------------75

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