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研究生:梁亞忠
研究生(外文):Ya-Chung Liang
論文名稱:福山天然闊葉林內太陽輻射量之研究
論文名稱(外文):Solar Irradiation under Forest Canopy of a Natural Broad-leaved Forest at Fu-Shan in Northeastern Taiwan
指導教授:郭幸榮郭幸榮引用關係
指導教授(外文):Shing-Rong Kuo
學位類別:博士
校院名稱:國立臺灣大學
系所名稱:森林學研究所
學門:農業科學學門
學類:林業學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:1999
畢業學年度:87
語文別:中文
論文頁數:123
中文關鍵詞:冠層太陽輻射量透光率空間統計測量軌道系統
外文關鍵詞:canopysolar irradiationtransmission ratespatial statisticssurveying tram system
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本論文旨在發展一套軌道式測量系統,測量林下太陽輻射量(solar irradiation),以研究福山低海拔天然闊葉林下透光率(transmission rate)之特性。應用空間統計(spatial statistics)分析林下太陽輻射量之空間變異特性,以提供林下光度測量之空間配置準則。
本軌道式測量系統之設計,可於林地內搬運,易於架設,具耐候性,且為自動化測量方式。系統基本架構包含六條測量軌道、蓄電池、資料記錄器及控制程式。每條測量軌道由一組平行架空之細鋼纜組成,其上配置一台具光量子感測器之台車。系統由一具資料記錄器,同步控制六條軌道上之台車往返移動並行光度測量,每一軌道台車之移動距離為20 m。台車的移動具定位功能,其重現性(repeatability)低於 ±2 cm / 40 m,太陽輻射量之測量誤差低於5%。測軌上測點間距可由控制程式自行設定,以1 m測點間距為例,六條軌道於5 min之測量時間內,可測得126個測點,所得資料儲存於資料記錄器內。經林地測試結果顯示,本系統適合於林地太陽輻射量長期研究工作,亦可適用於其他植物冠層太陽輻射量之測量。
應用本軌道式測量系統,較不受天候條件之限制,可於陰天或陰時晴之天候下,進行林下日平均透光率之測量。林下透光率於10:00至16:00間,經756筆日平均透光率之變異係數(coefficient of variation, CV)的頻度分析,其平均值於孔隙內及冠層下方分別為20.1%與19.3%,標準差於孔隙內及冠層下方分別為10.9%與11.5%,可供相關試驗參考。冠層下方平均透光率之變化較孔隙內為穩定,孔隙內光環境之變異與透光率之季節性變動,均大於冠層下方所得之結果。
林下透光率之空間統計分析結果,提供福山地區設置林下光環境研究樣區之準則。冠層下方之樣區直徑或邊長可設為14.5 m,樣區內感測器之設置距離以不超過3 m為限。孔隙內之樣區大小可與孔隙大小相當,感測器之設置間距以3.8 m為限。於林下測量透光率時,應避免陰雨有霧之天候,並於冠層上方日照強度穩定下,短時間內完成測量工作。如此所得之測量數據,可以符合空間統計預測品質之要求。
To investigate the transmission rate characteristics of photosynthetically active radiation ( PAR ) and to develop criteria for measuring solar irradiation under canopies of natural broad-leaved forests of Taiwan, a surveying tram system was developed. As a case study, the system was then applied to a natural broad-leaved forest at Fu-Shan in northeastern Taiwan to measure the solar irradiation under the forest canopy.
The tram system consisted of six trams, a set of rechargeable batteries, a datalogger, and a control program. Each tram had a carriage that equipped with a quantum sensor on top. A pair of 20-meter long parallel fine steel cables makes the tramway. The movements and light measurements of carriages on the six trams were synchronized by the datalogger. The repeatability of a carriage on a tramway was less than ±2 cm / 40 m. The measurement error of solar irradiation by the tram system was less then 5 %. The control program could set the sampling interval on tramway. For a one-meter sampling interval, six trams could take 126 measurements within five minutes. The measured data were collected by the same datalogger. Because the tram system was easy to move and setup in forests, was weatherproof and had the capability for automatic sampling, it would be suitable for long term study of solar irradiation under forest canopies of various vegetation types.
The results from the case study suggested that different sky conditions did not significantly affect the measurement quality of the tram system. In the study site, the frequency of CV(coefficient of variation), which was based on 756 daily average transmission rates of PAR measured during 10:00 to 16:00, showed that the mean CV for the gap and canopy were 20.1% and 19.3%, respectively, and the standard deviations of CV for the gap and canopy were 10.9% and 11.5%, respectively. The variations of average transmission rate under the canopy were more stables then those in the gap. The variances of light environment and seasonal dynamic of transmission rate in the gap were greater than those under the canopy.
Results from the spatial statistical analysis of the transmission rates suggested that, for measuring the solar irradiation at Fu-Shan area, under the canopy the optimal diameter for a measurement plot should be 14.5 m, and the distance between sensors should be under 3 m. In the gap, the size of the measurement plot should equal to the gap size, and the distance between sensors should be under 3.8. To obtain the best measurement quality, one should avoid making measurements of solar irradiation under rainy or foggy sky conditions, and even under stable sky conditions, one should complete the measurement within the shortest time interval possible.
封面
目錄
謝誌
中文摘要
英文摘要
圖表目錄
Ⅰ、前言
Ⅱ、前人研究
Ⅲ、材料與方法
(Ⅰ)、試驗樣區
(Ⅱ)、林內軌道測量系統之設計
1、軌道系統結構之設計
2、軌道測量系統之基本特性評估
(1)、台車之定位特性
(2)、改裝後光量子感測器之反應特性
(3)、軌道測量系統之整體特性
3.林地測試評估
(Ⅲ)、林下光度測量及透光率之計算
(Ⅳ)、林分生長滯緩期間LAI減少量之估算
(Ⅴ)、數據資料之空間統計
1、半變異圖分析
2、Ordinary Kringing法
3、交叉驗證分析
(Ⅵ)、LAI與消光係數之估算
Ⅳ、結果與討論
(Ⅰ)、軌道測量系統之基本特性評估
1、台車之定位特性
2、自行改裝之光量子感測器的反應特性
3、軌道測量系統之整體特性
(Ⅱ)、軌道測量系統林地測試結果評估
(Ⅲ)、本軌道系統與其他測量方式之比較
(Ⅳ)、不同天候對冠層透光率之影響
(Ⅴ)、不同測量時間對冠層透光率之影響
(Ⅵ)、冠層上方日照強度對於林下平均透光率的影響
(Ⅶ)、冠層結構與透光率之變化
(Ⅷ)、林下透光率之空間特性分析
1、日照強度對於林下透光率空間特性之影響
(1)資料特性
(2)冠層下方透光率之空間特性
(3)孔隙內透光率之空間特性
(4)冠層下方與孔隙內透光率空間特性之比較
2、年平均透光率之空間特性
(Ⅸ)、不同日照強度下林下光度之空間特性
(Ⅹ)、林分之平均LAI與消光係數
Ⅴ、結論
Ⅵ、引用文獻
附錄1、控制程式
附錄2、軌道式測量系統之硬體配線圖
附錄3、軌道式測量系統進馬達之驅動線路圖
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