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研究生:林靜宜
研究生(外文):Jing-Yi Lin
論文名稱:台灣地區臭氧指標植物之研究
論文名稱(外文):Studies on Ozone Indicator Plants in Taiwan Area
指導教授:孫岩章孫岩章引用關係
指導教授(外文):En-Jang Sun
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立臺灣大學
系所名稱:植物病理學研究所
學門:農業科學學門
學類:植物保護學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:1999
畢業學年度:87
語文別:中文
論文頁數:79
中文關鍵詞:臭氧指標植物
外文關鍵詞:OzoneIndicator plants
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利用連續攪拌熏氣箱(CSTRs)對6個菜豆品系、6個番茄品系、22個三葉草品系、17個花生品系以及其他國內外常見之指標植物進行臭氧人工模擬熏氣實驗,比較各種植物在台灣地區之生長情形與對臭氧之敏感度,以期能篩選出適合台灣地區栽種且便於推廣使用之指標植物。
上述之供試植物經100ppb臭氧濃度處理三小時後,對臭氧的敏感度依序為:菜豆>三葉草>O''Hara牽牛花≧番茄>Bel-W3菸草>落花生。經60ppb臭氧濃度處理三小時之後,對臭氧的敏感度依序為:菜豆>O''Hara牽牛花≧番茄>Bel-W3菸草>三葉草>落花生。且當臭氧濃度提高時,大部分植物之葉部受害率亦會隨之增加。
在病徵的觀察方面,菜豆的敏感品系均能表現出明顯的病徵,於處理後出現成熟葉脈間褐色細點斑、葉片黃化以及提早落葉的情形,即使是抗性品系在經臭氧處理之後亦有葉片黃化、落葉之現象。其他指標植物的受害情形大部分是成熟葉脈間或葉緣出現白色或褐色細點斑,嚴重處可見壞疽塊斑或全葉黃化、落葉,病徵易於觀察。
由臭氧人工模擬熏氣實驗的結果來看,大部分的落花生品系對低濃度的臭氧均不敏感,在高濃度處理時之病徵表現亦不如菜豆、三葉草或是番茄明顯,但是因為其他植物在台灣地區炎熱的夏季中普遍出現生長不良之情形,落花生則能忍受台灣地區夏季之高溫,保持一定之生長情況與對臭氧之敏感度,故適合用於監測夏季之臭氧污染;而其餘大部分之指標植物則在春、秋、冬三季生長勢較佳,且對臭氧具有高敏感性,因此適用於其他季節之臭氧監測。
在1997年7-9月間之實驗結果發現植物的生長情形與氣象條件及敏感度皆有關,植物的生長情形依序為台灣大學農場溫室>溫室外之空地>中非大樓四樓頂加ㄈ形架>中非大樓四樓頂之水泥地。同時利用儀器與指標植物監測臭氧污染,得知指標植物對光化學污染物之敏感程度與生長情形有關,生長情形良好之指標植物,對污染物亦表現出較強之敏感度,配合上述之儀器監測資料,在污染來襲之後可發現指標植物出現病徵。
此外,由其他時間的監測結果得知,台北地區在上午十時至下午二時為臭氧污染出現的尖峰時段,只要在氣象條件符合時,台北地區四季皆可能出現高濃度的臭氧污染。
另一方面,利用行政院環境保護署監測及資訊處所提供的台北地區汐止、板橋、古亭、松山四個監測站自1996年1月至1998年12月共三年的臭氧逐時濃度監測資料針對六個項目進行分析,發現各測站之監測數值略有差異,在四個測站中,以板橋站之夏、秋季污染最為嚴重;松山站整體而言雖然不如板橋站嚴重,但污染情形有逐年升高的趨勢,在1998年甚至與板橋站之污染嚴重度不分軒輊。此外,古亭、汐止站則為污染較不嚴重的測站。
由於在臭氧人工模擬熏氣實驗中得知以80ppb之臭氧處理植物三小時之後,大部分的供試植物均會出現臭氧之典型病徵,因此統計台北地區四個測站每年臭氧四小時(10:00-14:00)大於80ppb之總時數,結果發現大部分以夏、秋兩季出現之日數較多,以夏季臭氧污染最嚴重的板橋站為例,夏季每月有超過100小時污染大於上述之臨界值,即使是污染情形最輕微的汐止站,平均亦有30-40小時污染超過上述之臨界值,因此可知台北地區之臭氧污染情形十分嚴重。
Several indicator plants sensitive to ozone were tested in this study. They include 6 cultivars of snap bean(Phaseolus vulgaris L.), 6 cultivars of tomato(Lycopersicon esculentum L.), 22 cultivars of clover(Trifolium spp.), 17 cultivars of peanuts(Arachis hypogaea L.) and other important indicator plant species. These indicator plants were fumigated with man-made ozone in continuously stirred tank reactors(CSTRs). Their growth situation and sensitivity were compared.
Exposure of these indicator plants to 100ppb ozone for 3 hours in CSTRs showed the sensitivity order of these plants as snap bean>clover>O*Hara morning glory≧tomato>Bel-W3 tobacco>peanuts. After exposure of these indicator plants to 60ppb ozone for 3 hours in CSTRs showed the sensitivity order of these plants was snap bean>O*Hara morning glory≧tomato>Bel-W3 tobacco>clover>peanuts. When the ozone dose increased, more serious symptoms can be found on most indicator plants.
After fumigation, sensitive cultivars of snap bean expressed obvious symptoms, including stippling, fleck, chlorosis, and wilt on mature leaves. Other indicator plants also white or brown stippling or fleck symptoms. In serious situation, whole leaf chlorosis, and leaf fall were observed.
In this study, we found that most peanuts were insensitive to lower ozone dose. Their sensitivies were lower than those of snap bean, clover or tomato. However, peanuts can grow well in hot summer in Taiwan and are suitable for biomonitor foring in the summer. Most of other indicator plants grew well in spring, fall and winter, and had higher sensitivity to ozone, so they could be used in these seasons for ozone monitoring.
We also found that plant growth situation was affected by microclimate factor. The indicator plants grew best in NTU farm greenhouse, followed by outdoor soil, building top with shelter, and building top with cement floor. Their sensitivity to ozone also showed the same tendency. When plants grew healthier, they were more sensitive.
The data of ambient ozone from Taiwan Environmental Protection Agency(EPA) showed that ozone was predominant during 10:00 A.M. to 14:00 P.M. in Taipei area when the weather conditions were adequate for photochemical reactions.
As the result of ozone fumigation showed that 80ppb ozone for 3 hours could induce typical injury on most plants, this is selected as a threshold dose for ozone symptoms. The accumulative hours of ozone more than 80ppb for 4 hours a day were counted for 4 sites in Taipei. Results showed that high ozone hour existed frequently in summer and fall. Among these 4 sites, Panchiao had most serious the most pollution. In 1998, there were more than 100 hours over the threshold. Even the least serious site---Shichu had 30-40hours over the threshold. These data expressed that pollution was very serious in Taipei area.
壹、前言.....................................................1
貳、文獻回顧.................................................3
參、材料與方法..............................................16
一、國內外指標植物的生物監測之試驗與評估..................16
(一)臭氧指標植物之收集..................................16
(二)供試植物之栽培與管理................................19
(三)連續攪拌熏氣箱設備..................................22
(四)指標植物之人工模擬熏氣..............................22
(五)指標植物敏感度之比較................................23
二、利用儀器及指標植物監測台北地區之臭氧..................25
(一)利用儀器監測台北地區之臭氧..........................25
(二)指標植物於不同環境下之生長情形與敏感性..............25
三、台北地區臭氧濃度資料分析及對植物可能影響之評估........26
(一)台北地區臭氧濃度資料分析............................26
(二)利用指標植物監測台北地區之臭氧污染..................27
肆、結果....................................................29
一、國內外指標植物的生物監測之試驗與評估....................29
二、利用儀器及指標植物監測台北地區之臭氧....................43
(一)利用儀器監測台北地區之臭氧..........................43
(二)指標植物於不同環境下之生長情形......................43
(三)指標植物於不同環境下對臭氧之敏感性 .................43
三、台北地區臭氧濃度資料分析及對植物可能影響之評估..........48
伍、討論....................................................60
陸、中文摘要................................................65
柒、英文摘要................................................67
捌、參考文獻................................................69
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