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研究生:駱中怡
研究生(外文):Chung-Yi Lo
論文名稱:迫吸處理對東方型百合切花儲後生理與碳水化合物含量之影響
論文名稱(外文):Effect of Pulsing on the Postharvest Physiology and Carbohydrates Content of Cut Oriental Lily Flowers
指導教授:李哖李哖引用關係
指導教授(外文):Nean Lee
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立臺灣大學
系所名稱:園藝學研究所
學門:農業科學學門
學類:園藝學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:1999
畢業學年度:87
語文別:中文
論文頁數:153
中文關鍵詞:東方型百合藥劑迫吸葉片黃化乙烯呼吸作用碳水化合物
外文關鍵詞:Oriental Lily Flowerspulsingleaf yellowingethylenerespirationcarbohydrates
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台灣於冬、春季時仍可生產東方型百合切花, 具有外銷潛力。但在低溫儲運後, 常有花苞無法正常開放及葉片快速黃化的情形。前人研究指出以0.25mM STS+20%蔗糖可改善‘Acapulco’等品種的正常開花率, 並可稍延緩葉片黃化。故首先以前人結論最好的藥劑迫吸組合0.25mM STS+20% sucrose試驗是否對最主要外銷品種‘Casa Blanca’也有效, 再加試其它藥劑的效果, 並更進一步探討藥劑迫吸之所以改善東方型百合切花儲後品質之可能生理機制。
東方型百合如在儲前以0.25mM STS、0.25mM STS+20%蔗糖或0.25mM GA3+20%蔗糖迫吸4小時, 均可有效改善儲後的正常開花率; GA3、STS或1-MCP在與蔗糖合併迫吸後, 雖可有效得增大花徑及延長花朵壽命, 但會促進葉黃; 而GA3和1-MCP可有效得抑制儲後的葉片黃化, 但較不能改善花朵品質; 至於STS則效果不穩定。
‘Casa Blanca’的花苞在低溫儲藏後及葉片黃化時的乙烯釋放量均會上升, 藥劑迫吸可抑制乙烯釋放量上升, 其中以GA3效果最好, 在藥劑中添加20%蔗糖似乎會稍微增加乙烯釋放量。另STS+蔗糖常顯示對花苞的乙烯釋放量幾乎無抑制之效,而STS的效果則較不穩定。以GA3或STS迫吸的花苞和葉片呼吸作用較低, 而兩藥劑在與蔗糖合併迫吸後, 則會使其呼吸作用增加。
‘Casa Blanca’的花朵在未儲藏時, 花朵含有多量的可溶性糖及澱粉, 葉片的碳水化合物含量較低。在低溫儲藏後, 花朵的可溶性糖含量增加, 澱粉含量下降。在藥劑中添加蔗糖迫吸後, 儲後花朵的可溶性糖含量增加, 尤其在第四朵花中, 除了可溶性糖含量增加外, 其澱粉含量也大幅增加。以總可溶性糖含量在各部位分佈的比例來看, 儲藏前可溶性糖大多分佈在莖和葉片中, 儲後花朵的總可溶性糖含量劇增。
‘Casa Blanca’儲藏在5℃以下才能有效得抑制其呼吸作用及花朵開放, 而在10℃的儲藏溫度下僅能稍抑制呼吸作用, 花朵也出現開放現象。移溫至25℃後, 可見原儲藏在5℃以下的切花移溫後的呼吸作用上升最快, 花朵也在移溫後迅速開放。低溫可能可藉由抑制呼吸作用的上升來抑制花朵開放及細胞生理作用。
由兩年中的‘Casa Blanca’切花品質調查得知一些會發生儲後品質劣變的切花均自平地生產, 但因採樣數過少, 並不能充分證實。採收前的環境因子影響百合切花品質甚巨, 由於無法確定切花產地, 因此無法得知造成切花品質下降的主因。

Oriental lilies can be produced in Taiwan during the winter and spring and are a potential source of export, However, cold storage often resulted in flower buds opening irregularly and yellowing of leaves. Previous studies have shown that treatment with 0.25mM STS mixed with 20% sucrose on‘Acapulco’allows the buds to open naturally and delays leaves yellowing. In this study, the effectiveness of pulsing with 0.25mM STS mixed with 20% sucrose on‘Casa Blanca’is tested. Other types of chemicals were also tested to understand the effects of pulsing on the morphology of Oriental lilies.
When Oriental lilies were pulsed with 0.25mM STS, 0.25mM STS mixed with 20% sucrose, or 0.25mM GA3 mixed with 20% sucrose for 4 hours before cold storage, flower buds opened naturally after removal from storage. Although pulsing with sucrose increased flower diameter and longevity, it caused yellowing of the leaves. GA3 and 1-MCP could delay leaf yellowing but could not improve the quality of the flower; the effects of STS were inconstant.
Ethylene production increased in‘Casablanca’after cold storage and when the leaves began to yellow but could be prevented by pulsing. Among the chemicals tested, GA3 was the most effective. The addition of 20% sucrose to GA3 caused a slight increase in ethylene levels. STS mixed with sucrose was ineffective against ethylene production, and STS displayed unstable effects. Respiration in the buds and leaves seemed to be lower by GA3 or STS but increased when sucrose was added. A higher respiration rate in flower buds causes earlier flowering, but the same occurrence in leaves causes it to senescence faster.
Before storage,‘Casa Blanca’flowers contained high concentrations of soluble sugars and starch and its leaves contained low levels of them. After storage, the sugar content increased and the starch content decreased. When sucrose was added to the pulsing, soluble sugar levels increased, particularly in the fourth flower, which also contained a greatly increased starch content. In terms of the total soluble sugar distribution throughout the plant, the larger amount of soluble sugars was found in the stem and leaves before cold storage. After storage, the content of total soluble sugars greatly increased in the flowers.
Respiration and flowering were effectively inhibited only when‘Casa Blanca’was stored at or below 5℃.A slight decline in respiration at 10℃ and the initial stages of flowering could be observed. When the flowers rewarmed to 25℃, the plants that were stored at 0℃ resumed respiration and flowering rapidly. The cold temperature preventing flowering and cell growth possibly by halted respiration.
Useful information was obtained from this two-year study on the quality of ‘Casa Blanca’cut flowers, but many assumptions could not be thoroughly proven because of the low sampling number. The environment under which cut liles were cultivated before harvesting acutely affects the quality of the flowers. Since flower supply is unknown, it is difficult to determine the cause of a decrease in flower quality.

前言
前人研究
一、花苞無法正常開放原因之探討
(一) 花朵無法正常開放之生理機制
(二) 造成花朵無法正常開放之可能原因
二、葉片快速黃化原因之探討
(一) 葉片黃化時的代謝變化
(二) 造成葉片黃化的可能原因
三、藥劑迫吸對切花乙烯釋放量和呼吸作用的影響
(一) 迫吸處理對呼吸作用的影響
(二) 迫吸處理對乙烯釋放量的影響
四、藥劑迫吸對切花碳水化合物含量分佈的影響
五、百合切花採收前環境因子的影響
(一) 百合的促成栽培三期
(二) 東方型百合促成栽培
材料與方法
一、植物材料
二、藥劑迫吸及燻蒸處理
三、儲藏試驗
四、瓶插表現之評估
五、葉片特性與葉綠素含量調查
六、乙烯及二氧化碳釋放量測定
七、碳水化合物含量分析
結果
一、 各藥劑迫吸處理對東方型百合切花儲後品質的影響
(一) STS+20%蔗糖對東方型百合切花儲後品質的影響
(二) GA3+20%蔗糖對東方型百合切花儲後品質的影響
(三) STS及GA3單獨或和蔗糖合併迫吸對東方型百合切花儲後品質的影響
(四) 1-MCP對東方型百合切花儲後品質的影響
二、溫度對東方型百合切花呼吸作用之影響及瓶插品質調查
(一) 溫度對東方型百合切花呼吸作用之影響
(二) 東方型百合切花瓶插品質調查
三、迫吸對東方型百合切花儲後乙烯釋放量和呼吸作用的影響
(一) 藥劑迫吸對分離花朵及葉片的乙烯及呼吸作用影響
(二) 藥劑迫吸對整枝切花上之花苞及葉片的乙烯及呼吸作用影響
(三) 藥劑迫吸對整枝切花儲後呼吸作用的影響
四、迫吸對東方型百合切花儲後碳水化合物分佈的影響
討論
一、藥劑迫吸對東方型百合切花儲後品質與生理的影響
(一) 迫吸對東方型百合花苞儲後品質與生理的影響
(二) 迫吸對東方型百合葉片儲後品質與生理的影響
二、東方型百合切花儲後品質的影響因子
摘要
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